Animal micro-state preparation craft – Dairy Forum – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
Animal microecological project is to use animal micro-organism theory to guide beneficial microorganisms to promote animal growth or production performance, anti-infective, promote immunization, improve feed conversion utilization, and improve the efficacy of animal product quality or reduce environmental pollution. Single microecological preparation.
Micro-state preparation is a new type of live bacterial preparation, widely used in humans, animals and plants. A live bacterial preparation made by identifying, cultivating, drying, etc. by identifying, cultivating, drying and other series of techniques. Divided into three categories according to their purposes: 1 microecological adjustment (anti-disease treatment); 2 micro-human multifunctional preparation, microbial feed additive; 3 microecological booster, etc. Animal micro-state preparation is divided into three categories according to its use and role:
(1) Micro-state adjustment micro-ecological adjustment is to use different microecological preparations (including ecosystems prepared by oxygen and anaerobic bacteria) Adjusting the loss of balanced flora to achieve the purpose of treating diseases.
(2) Microbial multifunctional preparations are used in the microbial feed additives for pigs, fish and poultry to play a variety of roles: 1 antagonize hits, reduce disease occur; 2 Help the digestion and absorption of feed; 3 provide nutrition ( Some bacteria can provide more than 18 kinds of amino acids); 4 synthetic proteins and vitamins; 5 stimulate animal immune function.
(3) Microbial Heliflower Animal Microbial Preparation After a large number of experimental studies include ordinary animals, scoraches, sterile animal tests, proved safety and effect, no side effects, and show remarkable Help and increase production.
At present, the international research microecological preparation has the following trends: First, try to use animal self-historical microorganisms, the homology of strains, such as pig source strains, and bovine genus Applying for the cow; Second, try to use less pathogens as microecological strains.
Animal micro-state preparation is better than a single bacteria effect, and the user’s own troubles are also avoided, but single strains are the basis for developing and compounding composite strains. At present, the study of single strains pays attention to certain specific performance development, such as immunization, anti-infective, nutrients, intestinal flock regulation, antagonism, metabolic pathway, pH adjustment, environmental regulation, anti-stress, etc. Microbial strains are transformed from quantitative towards, which is to minimize exogenous microbial strains to balance the intestinal normal flora balance, the less performance, the higher the performance. The number of micro-states is too high will cause the flora balanceBreak, will bring infection and increase in nutrient consumption.
1. Solid fermentation
1. Concept of solid fermentation
Solid fermentation refers to fermentation in a matrix of moisture insoluble in water, and does not contain any free water during fermentation, with the freedom of microbes The increase in water, the solid fermentation range extends to the viscous fermentation and solid particles suspension fermentation.
1. Advantages of solid fermentation
(1) Solid fermentation of raw materials is wide, and the price is low.
(2) No sterile operation in the fermentation process, the air present in the solid particle gap can provide oxygen in microbial growth, small ventilation, no sterile air.
(3) The fermentation process is simple, with less investment, low energy consumption, no recovery and purification after fermentation, no waste treatment.
1. Disadvantages of solid fermentation
(1) Solid fermentation, complex process and difficult to control, susceptible to a variety of factors, is not easy to ensure purity.
(2) Solid fermentation is limited to microbial growth in low humidity, generally more suitable for fungi.
(3) Metabolic fever during the fermentation process, and the removal of a large amount of Xie heat in the production time will limit its production scale.
(4) The fermentation is uneven, the detection and control of fermentation parameters are more difficult.
(5) The addition of material during the fermentation process cannot achieve uniform, it is difficult to get high content products.
(6) The labor intensity of solid fermentation is large and not convenient for mechanical operation.
2. Liquid deep fermentation
2. Concept of liquid deep fermentation
Liquid deep fermentation refers to the saccharide, organic and inorganic containing nitrogen, organic and inorganic containing nitrogen in the biochemical reactor Some trace elements such as compounds, inorganic salts and other nutrients are dissolved in water as medium, sterilized, and accelerated into sterile air and stirring, providing oxygen needed for bacteria breathing metabolism. And control the appropriate external conditions, and the process of cultivating a large amount of breeding in the fungus. Divided into two types of continuous fermentation, batch fermentation and feed batch, depending on the mode of operation.
Continuous fermentation refers to the addition of fresh medium to the ferment tank at a certain rate, and flows out of the culture fluid at the same speed, thereby maintaining a constant amount in the fermentor, and the microorganism grows in a stable state.The alignment period in batch culture can be effectively extended.
Biki-batch is referred to in nutrients and strains, until the end is released, in addition to air entry and exhaust, and no material exchange with the outside world.
Replenishment batch fermentation is also known as semi-continuous fermentation, is a fermentation technology between batch fermentation and continuous fermentation, refers to the addition of a certain manner to the culture system in some way in a microbial batch fermentation. The culture technology of materials. By replenishing the material into the culture system, the nutrient concentration in the culture solution can be maintained within a certain range. It is guaranteed that the growth needs of microorganisms, and does not have adverse effects, thereby achieving the purpose of improving the yield.
2. Charge of deep fermentation of liquid
(1) The raw material is wide, but the price is slightly higher than the solid fermentation.
(2) The growth of the bacteria is rapid, and the fermentation cycle is short.
(3) When liquid strains are accessed into solid culture, there is a fast flow, easy to disperse, rapid, germination, etc., which can effectively reduce contamination during fermentation.
(4) Factory production, no seasonality.
(5) The liquid fermentation process is complex, the production equipment has a large investment, but the liquid fermentation has high efficiency and easy automation.
(6) Liquid fermentation products are easy to extract, refined, and product quality is stable.
3. Micro-capsule package is technique
Micro-capsule package is technique to wrap the trace substance in the polymer film, which is a substance (solid, liquid or gas) that will require coatings (solid, liquid or gas) in special means Micro-closed capsules. The microcapsules include both walls and core materials, and the coated materials are called core materials such as vitamins, probiotics, and the like; embedded substances are referred to as wall materials or capsules such as sodium alginate, soy-separated proteins. The use of microcapsules can be protected from a substance that is easily loses active during processing and storage, so that it maintains its original traits and properties. Under appropriate conditions, the packaged substance is released by some external stimulus or sustained release. The diameter of the microcapsules is generally 1 to 500 μm, the thickness of the wall is 0.5 to 150 μm, and the particle diameter has been developed with ultra-microcapsules having a particle diameter of 1 μm or less. The shape of the microcapsules can be spherical, grain or block.
4. Spray drying technology
Spray drying technology is one of a solution, emulsion, suspension or slurry liquid into a powdery drying article in a single stepDrying method. The principle is that the dried liquid passes through the atomizer, and the spray is sprayed with a very fine fog droplets, and relies on the drying medium (hot air or inert gas) to uniformly mix the fog droplets, and exchanged the solvent vaporization by heat exchange and quality. Or molten curing. Spray drying method is best suited for microcapsules of the ionized liquid material, the stronger the hydrophobicity of the core material, the better the embedding effect. The material currently used for spray drying mainly has liquid paraffin, cellulose acetate, lemon oil and hydroxylated dextrin. The hydroxylation paste is more common, mainly because the drying temperature of the material is 38-65 ° C, which is much lower than the drying temperature of other dry materials. The spray drying method has risen, and the microencapsulated particle temperature is also increased, and the biological activity of the core material may be lowered, such as 70-73 ° C is sensitive to the spray drying of the bacteria.
The main advantage of spray drying technology is that the dry rate is high, the time is short; the product is purity, which has good dispersibility and solubility; the production process is simple, easy to operate, suitable for continuous production; material temperature is low. For the spray drying process, although a higher temperature drying medium is employed, the droplets contain a large amount of solvent, and the surface temperature of the material generally does not exceed the wet ball temperature of the hot air, so it is very suitable for drying of thermal substances. The disadvantage is that the unit product is high, the heat efficiency is low, the medium consumption is large, the dryer is large, and the infrastructure cost is high.
5. Vacuum freeze drying technology
Vacuum freeze drying technology is a new type of dry dehydration technique in combination of vacuum technology and freezing technology. This technique is to first freeze the wet material or less, so that the moisture becomes solid, then the ice is directly subjected to the drying method of steam at an appropriate temperature and the vacuum. The basic principle of vacuum freeze drying technology is based on three of the three phases (solid state, liquid and gaseous). These three phases can be converted to each other. The temperature corresponding to the three-phase point is 0.0098 ° C, the air pressure is 610.5 Pa, which can coexist with three of water, ice, and water steam at such temperatures and air pressure. Only in three phases are below the three-phase point, ice can be directly transformed directly into a gas phase, which is called sublimation. In the high vacuum state, the principle of sublimation is used to remove the moisture in the pre-frozen material (without ice) to be removed from the ice sublimation as water vapor, thereby achieving freeze drying purposes.
Advantages of freeze drying: 1 on non-heat resistanceFor the minimum damage and loss of vitality; 2 forming a layer of brittle structure; 3 has the ability to have a sterile filtration liquid. The process flow of vacuum freeze drying technology is: pretreatment (raw materials → product choice → cleaning → fraction) → freezing → sublimation dry → vacuum packaging → finished product. Among them, freezing and sublimation drying are key processes for processing.
6. Membrane filtration technology is a membrane separation technique in which the material in which the substance in the solution is mechanically separated by a molecular size in the solution is mechanically separated, concentrated. , Purification and purification techniques. Membrane filtration technology has simple operation, small area, and no phase change during processing, and does not produce new pollutants, and the separation effect is good.
According to the different film selectivity, it can be divided into reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), ultrafiltration (UF) and microfiltration (MF), and the like. Reverse osmosis is an external pressure on the concentrated solution, and the pressure is greater than the osmotic pressure, and the water in the concentrated solution will overcome the osmotic pressure to flow through the semi-permeable film to the dilute solution, so that the concentration of the concentration solution is greater, mainly used in water treatment Desalination, medicine for water, pure water preparation and thermal sensitive substance concentration. Nonofiltration intercepting between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis, from 200 to 1000dalton, the elopement of divalent ions, especially the anion, is particularly suitable for concentration, desalting of low molecular weight substances. Ultrafiltration is a membrane separation technology between microfiltration and nanofiltration, which is optionally selected from 3000 to 300000 Dalton, which is suitable for isolation, concentration and purification of macromolecular substances and small molecular material, involving the food industry. Many fields such as pharmaceutical industries, biological agents and Chinese medicine preparations. Microfiltration is a precision filtration, mainly applied to the pharmaceutical industries, and preprocessing prior to wastewater treatment.
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