Energy Feed & Protein Feed – Waterfowl – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
First, energy feed
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Energy feed refers to the thick fiber content in the feed dry matter less than 18%, thick The protein content is less than 20% feed. This type of feed in the goose is large, and is the main source of energy, including valley real class and its processing by-products.
(1) Valley real class. Valley real types include seeds of corn, barley, wheat, sorghum and other food crops. The nutrient characteristics are high starch content, high effective value, low crude fiber content, good premium, easy to digest. However, the crude protein content is low, amino acid composition is imbalance, tryptophan, lysine, low methionine, low biological value; less calcium in minerals, high phosphorus content, pestinal phosphoric acid; other lack of vitamin D . Therefore, in production should be used in conjunction with protein feed, mineral feed and vitamin feed.
1, corn: Maize known as the king of feed, the specific gravity of the feed is very large, its effective value is high, the metabolic energy is 13.5-14.04 megawa / kg. However, the protein content of corn is low, only 7.5-8.7%, essential amino acid imbalance, mineral elements and vitamin lack. Other feed and additives are required in the fit feed.
Yellow corn contains carotene and lutein, it is important to keep the yellow, skin and feet. When the pulverized corn moisture is higher than 14%, it is easy to use, and should be used in time. If you need long-term storage, it is not pulverized.
2, Barley: Barley contains Xie Can 11.34 megawa / kg, lower than corn, crude fiber content is higher than corn, but the crude protein content is higher, about 11%, and quality is better than other cereals . The amount of barley in the goose diet is generally 15-30%, and the gars should be limited.
3, wheat: The wheat is high, the metabolism can be about 12.5 megawa / kg, the crude fiber is small, the horizontal is good, its crude protein is the highest, up to 12-15%, but Threonine, lysine is lacking, calcium, and phosphorus ratios must be coordinated with other feeds during use.
4, sorghum: The high sorghum metabolism can be 12-13.7 megawa / kg, the protein content is quiteHowever, the quality is poor, and other ingredients are similar to corn. The sorghum contains more tannins, the taste, the poor, affects the utilization of protein, minerals, so in the goose diet, should not exceed 15%. Low single sorghum has a suitable amount of use.
5, oats: oatmetic metabolism can be about 11 megawa / kg, crude protein 9-11%, lysine, but the thick fiber content is also high, so it is not suitable for young Goose and species are used in excessive use.
(2) Brain class. The bran feed is a by-product of cereal seeds. Its nutrition is that the nitrogen-nitrogen-free ratio is small, the crude protein content and the quality are between the peony seeds and the grasses of the seeds, the crude fiber is high, and the thickness is high, and the minerals are more resistant. Most of the phosphorus in minerals The form of phytate is present, and the calcium ratio is imbalance. In addition, the sources of bran feeding have been wide, and the texture is soft, and the preparatory is good.
1, wheat bran: including wheat, barley, more protein, phosphorus, magnesium and B vitamin, good preparatory, fluffy, laxative effect, is the common use of geese Feed, but the crude fiber content is high and should be controlled. Generally, the eggs and egg geese goose wheat bran are 5-15% of diet, and the birthplace period accounts for 10-25%.
2, rice bran: rice bran is a mixture of seed skin, paste powder, embryo, a small amount of endosperm processed by brown rice. Its nutritional value is related to the degree of processing. 12% of crude protein, more calcium, rich in vitamin B, high crude fat content, easy to get gains, and weather is not allowed to store. Because the crude fibers in rice bran also affect the digestibility, the same should be used. Generally, the amount of eucalyptus is 5-10% of diet, and the birthplace is 10-20%.
(3) The roots, tubers and melons. Such feed moisture water content, usually 70-90% in natural states. The starch content in dry matter is high, less fiber, low protein content, lack of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin content. Commonly used sweet potato, potato, carrots, pumpkins, etc.
Second, protein feed
Protein feed is to refer to the thick fiber content of 18% or less, the crude protein content is greater than or equal to 20% feed. Can be divided into plant protein feed, animal protein feed, single cell protein feed and synthetic amino acid 4.
(1) Plant Protein Feed. Plant protein feed includes legumes, cakes and partial slag feeds. The geese is commonly used as cake feed, which is a by-product after the oil raised and oil seed raid, in which the block-shaped by-products after pressing oil are referred to as cakes, and the fragmented by-products after immersion is referred to as a meal. Common soybean cake, rapeseed cake, cotton seed cake, peanut cake, etc. The nutrient characteristics of such feed are high crude protein content, the amino acid is balanced, and the biological value is high; the thick fat content is different due to the different processing methods, and the general cake has higher oil content is higher than that of the meal; the content of crude fibers is in processing No shell – free; less calcium in minerals, the amount of small vitamins in the B groups. Such feeds often contain some anti-nutrient factors, should be careful when using it.
1, soybean pie,: It is the best quality in all cakes, protein content reaches 40-50%, high lysine content, good use with corn, but methionine content Low low. In addition, soybean cakes and soybean meal contain anti-nutrient factors, which can affect the utilization of proteins, which can damage these hazardous substances by heating, but improper heating will also generate thermal damage to the protein, affecting the absorption and utilization of amino acids. Soybean pie, the unique source of protein feed to satisfy the need for the need for the protein, properly add methionine and lysine, essentially formulated the balance of amino acid balance.
2, rapeseed pie,: The resulting by-product obtained by rapeseed oil is a rapeseed cake (). Its crude protein content is about 36%, high methionine content, but the sulfur glucoside is decomposed into toxic substances under the effect of mustard, causing animal thyroidism, reduced hormone secretion, growth and reproduction, and affect food the amount. Therefore, in actual use, it should be limited to limited, generally 5-8% of the day grain, if it is better if it is used with cottonseed cakes.
3, cottonseed cake,: It is a by-product after extracting cottonseed oil, 32-37% of crude protein, and shelling cottonseed cake crude protein can reach 40%, high arginine content, but lys ammonia Acid and methionine content is low. Free cotton pol is present in cottonseed cake (), which will affect animal cells, blood and breeding functions, should control usage in diet, gut goose and seeds do not exceed 8%,His geese 10-15%.
(2) Animal protein feed. This type of feed is mainly by-products, meat, milk and egg product processing, as well as waste and silkworm cocoon of the slaughterhouse and the leather factory. Its common feature is that the protein content is high, the quality is excellent. It is appropriate, the proportion is appropriate, and the B vitamin is rich. Another feature is that the carbohydrate content is very small, free of cellulose, so the digestion is high, but contains a certain amount of grease, It is easy to get defeated, affecting product quality, and is easily contaminated by pathogenic bacteria.
1, fish powder: fish powder is generally made from squid, sardines, etc., due to prices of fish powder, usually no more than 5% in the geese food, mainly with plant-based protein feed.
2, meat bone powder: from the animal under the animal and waste of the carcass, after high temperature and high pressure. Due to different sources of raw materials, the proportion of bones is different, and the nutrient content changes very large. It can be matched with 5% in the goose diet.
3, blood powder: It is a product made of slaughtering livestock after drying, including 80% crude protein, lysine content of 6-7%, but is as severe, and methionine is also less. Due to the different process of processing, the utilization rate of proteins and amino acids is greatly different. There is more iron, with calcium-containing, calcium phosphorus, poor compliance, and usually account for 1-3% of the diet in the diet.
4, feather powder: body feathers are hydrolyzed by steam, dry and pulverized. The crude protein is more than 83%, but the protein quality is poor, lysine, methionine and tryptophan content are very low, and the cystine content is high. The feather powder is poor, and the use should be used for use, and the diet is generally no more than 3%.
5, silkworm chrysal powder: It is a dry, crushing product, contains higher fat, easy to get resistance, affect meat, egg quality. Springs contain 60-68% of proteins, typically methucine, lysine, and ribein, and 5% around the goose diet.
(3) Single cell protein feed. Such feeds are protein feeds made of various microbiomes, including yeast, non – pathogenic bacteria, native animal and algae. It is used in feed to feed yeast.
Feed yeast contains 40-50% of crude protein, protein biological value is between animal eggsBetween white and plant proteins, the lysine content is high, the methionine content is low, and the B vitamins are rich. Adding to the diet can improve the protein quality, supplement B vitamins, and improve the utilization efficiency of feed. Feed yeast has bitterness, poor equipotential, and ratio in diet is generally no more than 5%.
(4) amino acids. The amino acid is based on the international feed classification method in protein feed, but the production habits are called amino acid additives. At present, the feed grade amino acid produced by industrialized produces methionine, lysine, threonic acid, tryptophan, glutamic acid and glycine, wherein the methionine and lysine are most prone, which is a restriction amino acid, and therefore is more common in production. .
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