How to prevent the treatment of dairy diarrhea – Dairy Forum – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
Yak diarrhea prevention measures [Color = RGBA (0, 0, 0, 0.298)] Original: [Color = RGBA (0, 0, 0, 0.298)] Machi [URL =] China Dairy [/ URL] [Color = RGBA (0, 0, 0, 0.298)] 2016-08-27
Yak diarrhea prevention measures Abstract: Diarrhea is one of the most important health issues facing the yak yak period feeding management. Although the causes of yak diarrhea are complex, their pathogens are all intestinal liquid balance disorders, electrolyte balance disorders, and patients with dehydration, electrolyte balance disorders and acid poisoning. From the perspective of the disease, the cause of Yak diarrhea can be divided into two major categories of non-infective factors and infectious factors. The non-infective factors are mainly managers and nutritional factors, while infectious factors can be divided into pathogenic species. Bacterial, viral, rawormidity and other factors. For yak diarrhea, the treatment principle is to improve the dehydration of the body, adjust the electrolyte balance and correct the acidosis. In production, the incidence of yak diarrhea can be reduced by improving the post-pregnancy dairy, new yak’s feeding management and junior milk feeding management.
Key words: yak; diarrhea; prevention; treatment; raw milk diarrhea is one of the most important health problems facing the yak yak period feeding management, and is the most common cause of the death of yak. Yak diarrhea is not a disease, but a clinical manifestation of a variety of diseases. There are many reasons why yak diarrhea, which exhibits severity, which can be infected from the slight digestion to the fatty pathogenic microbial infection. Yak diarrhea is not only seriously harming the health of the yak, but also causing the death of yak, the treatment costs and the long-term growth and development of yak, and will affect the health and sustainable development of the cattle field. According to reports, the world’s dairy farm yak diarrhea is 20% to 100%. Therefore, for the dairy farm, the prevention and treatment of yak diarrhea is the top priority of yak feeding management. The high incidence of yak diarrhea is 1 month old, but through good feeding management measures, it can effectively reduce its incidence. 1 Symptoms are complex, and the clinical manifestations of yak diarrhea can be diverse from rain soft feces to semi-comrades according to the course of disease (see Figure 1). In the early days of the disease, the calf is excited, and the water-like feces; with the development of the disease, the yak may show the symptoms of dehydration (such asUnderwell, mucous membrane is dry, marina, etc.); with the aggravation of the dehydration, the patient may show the cold, loss of appetite or abolish, unlink, or difficult to stand, coma. 2 Cause It is known that the cause of yak diarrhea can be divided into two categories: 1) Non-infective factors, and 2) infectious factors. Non-infective factors include management factors and nutritional factors, infectious factors including bacterial, viral, rawier or other factors. When controlling infected yak diarrhea, non-infective factors must be considered, otherwise it is difficult to achieve good expectations. 2.1 Non-infective factors so-called non-infective factors, it can be understood as insufficient management. The freshman feeding is not properly feeding, and the breeding environment is bad or improper care, etc., can cause yak diarrhea eruption. The most common cause is as follows:
2.1.1 Management factors
The nutrients in the late pregnancy can not meet the needs of their energy and protein; at the same time, due to insufficient VA, VE and trace elements, all It can seriously affect the yield and quality of colostrum. The calves environment and calves are poor, muddy, dirty, young cows and cows mixed booms, stress, etc. Environmental factors are easy to contact infective pathogens, which will cause diarrhea. When the yak, the calf is harsh, the yak needs to strengthen the care, otherwise it is easy to diarrhea. The management factors of the polarmia quality, insufficient feeding, improper feeding time are also the factors that lead to caver diarrhea.
2.1.2 Nutritional factors should change the nursery approach to meet the needs of yak in a harsh environmental conditions. Any changes in conventional feeding habits can cause yak nutritious diarrhea. Such as the extension of the fed time interval, the yak may eat too much milk due to excessive hunger, resulting in a nutritional diarrhea. The discharged gray and white rained feces are milk flowing through the intestinal uncertainty. 2.2 Infectious factors, viruses and protesters are the most common infectious factors in yak diarrhea. In general, the patient will infect multiple pathogens at the same time. Typically, these bacteria, viruses or protous can be separated from the small intestine of feces or dead yak, but some of the microorganisms can also be separated from healthy yak or adults. Laboratory diagnostics can help prevent and treat and treat them and can be used to analyze their sources. When separating to Salmonella, antibiotic treatment regimens can be determined by drug sensitization, but the antibiotic therapy is invalid for viruses and protrusion infections. HereinafterAs a brief description of the calf diarrhea, it can determine its possible pathogens based on the current pathogenesis, but the traits of feces, color and the like are constantly correlated.
1) Escherichia coli
vast majority of calves in 5 days of age; a variety of E. coli can cause yak diarrhea, some are often in bacteria, can lead to sepsis; newborn The most common pathogens of yak diarrhea is the intestine E. coli (ETEC), ETEC’s bacterium antigen can be adhered to the intestinal velvet surface, and its adhesion is mainly F5 (original K99); ETEC initiated yak diarrhea is rapid Short the disease, from the showing weakness, diarrhea, dehydration to death often no more than 24
hours; patients often exhibit severe dehydration symptoms before diarrhea, some cases have no diarrhea symptoms before death; antibiotic treatment is more invalid, liquid Therapy can effectively reduce the mortality rate of patients; intestinal pathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and intestinal bleeding Escherichia coli (EGEC) can also cause yak diarrhea.
Salmonella is not only an important pathogen of yak diarrhea, but also one of the important pathogens of yak sepsis, and can also cause pneumonia; for yak diarrhea, murine-stricken Salmonella and Dublin Salmonella Its important pathogenesis; Antibiotics can prevent this disease; sapiacuria caused by sags in 15 years of age, calm, blood and falling intestinal mucosa; 犊 犊 犊 不 不 不 不 不;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Week;
Dublin Salmonella infection, it may make it lifetically carry a pathogen and spread outward; it can be separated from Salmonella in the absence of absence of Pass disinfection; Salmonella is suffering from human lives, human (especially Children) Salmonella disease can occur in contact with sterilization. 3) Clostridia
A variety of gas capsular transers can cause yak diarrhea, mainly gaseous capsia, C-type and D type; most typical cases, sudden, it can be shown to die Or weakness; patients can be seen before the death of the calf or neurological symptoms; a typical intestinal bleeding symptom can be seen. 2.2.2 Virus 1) Rotary virus
30 days of yak dungeon can be separated to a rotavirus; infected yak does not necessarily have diarrhea; the calf diarrhea caused by the rotavirus is 5-15 Aging; feeding of immune cow has protectedRole; although the calf disease infected with rotavirus is short, it is severely destroyed into the intestinal mucosa. 2) The coronavirus
like a rotavirus, the coronavirus can also be separated in most calf dung, but not all infected yak are increasing; the coronavirus infected yak causes damage to the intestines than the rotation The virus is more serious, so it is easy to cause serious diarrhea induced by secondary infection; feces and diarrhea occurrence time is similar to the rotavirus infection; the peasant milk of the immune culfront has a protective effect; there is evidence that it is related to coronary virus . 3) Bullivirosis diarrhea virus
Although cow virus diarrhea virus can lead to yak diarrhea, but not the main pathogen of yak diarrhea; Implectitis; this virus can also cause weaning of cash pneumonia. 2.2.3 Original insects 1) Cryptosphere
Cryptosporius is a very important parasite to the calf, which can be the original cause of the calf diarrhea, or the cause of the disease; In the short term after birth, diarrhea is more common in 5-30 days of yak; can be diagnosed with fecal inspections; can survive in the environment; passive immunity, being cold stress or malnutrition, calves; Managing the pathogens; there is currently no special treatment of drugs; many yak are hidden infection process; some prophylactic drugs can delay the discharge of the ovary; can infect people, trigger diarrhea. 2) The calf diarrhea caused by cuckle Emier coccidi is 21 days old, or it can be seen in 4-6 months; the yak resistance of subclinical infection has decreased, and the growth rate is low; once the disease is difficult to treat; Available drug prevention. 3) Jiadi flavor
Jiadi whipurium causing less cases of yak diarrhea; causing 2-4 weeks old yak diarrhea; healthy yak dung can also be separated from Jiai flavor. 2.2.4 Other mold and yeast bacteria and yeast can be found in the stomach and intestines of the crucible of the yak; usually believe that the fungi is not the original pathogen of the calf diarrhea; the use of large dose antibiotics during treatment, even if it can be seen Oral rehydration treatment. 3 Treatment Although the cause of calf diarrhea is complex, its clinical manifestations are based on enteritis and dehydration. The cause of diarrhea yak death is mainly dehydration and electrolyte disorders, and multi-non-pathogenic infection is caused. Therefore, the treatment of yak diarrhea should be mainly corrected by the dehydration condition and the adjustment of electrolyte balance. 3.1 Liquid therapy’s degree of dewateringIt can be judged according to its mental state, the degree of eye socket, and the skin elastic test, and can also be judged by the clinical manifestation of the patient, and the method of judging the phosphoric base, and the method of judgment will be used in Table 1 and Table 2. Appropriate replete fluid mode can be selected depending on the degree of dewatering and acid-base balance. Typically, the proliferation of 5% or less dehydration can be performed by oral mode of hydraulic fluid (ORT); the dehydration exceeds 8%, it is necessary to correct the dehydration condition and the acid-base balance in a manner in which intravenous infusion (IV) and oral rehydration. When the oral accumulation is treated, the amount can be administered in 2 l / time, 3 to 6 times / day; dehydration is serious, it is necessary to calculate the amount of liquid. The calculation method is: the amount of replenishment = dewatering state + downtime during treatment + normal maintenance required = dehydration% × weight + 60 ~ 80ml / kg / day + loss of water / day, yak, no water per day can be lost 2L Calculate. Take the weight of 40kg, dehydration 10% diarrhea yak as an example: Liquid amount = 10% × 40 + 60 × 40 + 2 = 8.4L Due to dehydration more than 8%, the yak needs to be partially intravenous, and 3L liquid IV can be 3l during treatment. 5.4L liquid ORT.
The calculation method of the calcination is: alkali deficiency = acidosis% × weight × 0.6 (acidosis% = normal HCO3 – measured HCO3- or according to the estimated value obtained by Table 2) with body weight 40 kg, acidosis 10 % 牛 为: 补 补 量 = 10 × 40 × 0.6 = 240mmol HCO3-3.2 Antibiotic Therapy
Antibiotics have a direct relationship with the reasons for diarrhea yak. In addition to the yak diarrhea caused by Salmonella, there are many other treated significance. 3.3 Other treatment methods For calf diarrhea, it can be used in combination with some anti-inflammatory drugs and adsorbents. At present, the anti-inflammatory drugs available in the market are mainly third-generation fluornin and fourth-generation anti-inflammatory drugs peroxoxica; adsorbents can be administered by activated carbon, kaolin, etc.
Because 牛 腹 泻 can lead to non-infective factors and infectious factors, their prevention needs to be considered from feeding management, early milk feeding.
3.3.2 Feeding Management
Preventing yak diarrhea first should start from pregnancy cows, the energy, protein, trace elements and vitamins in the birth of the birth of the cow in the late pregnancy should be balanced. Consider the breeding of cowsThe stress problems faced in the process are as close as possible to avoid the occurrence of stress. The standardized feeding management ensures that the diet meets the nutritional needs of the pregnant cow, avoiding weakness, improves the quality of milk cows, combined with good extinctive feeding procedures, can effectively reduce the incidence of yak diarrhea. For yak, feeding methods, new yak nursing, yak comfortable, etc. need to be highly valued. In the largest cattle farm, breastfeeding period yak has a separate yak island separately, and the yak is mixed after weaning. Large-breast-feeding, using high-bed yak island alone, the pathogenic contamination is less, which can effectively reduce the incidence of yak diarrhea.
3.3.3 Tutinar feeding
For some patients with sick diarrhea, the sinam feeding management can effectively reduce the incidence of infection and calf diarrhea. Feeding of raw milk can follow the “3Q” principle, that is, timely (quantity), QUALITY, timely refers to the yak, feeding high-quality colostrum within 2 hours after the yak is born, and feeding the sufficient amount The amount of weight is 10%, the quality refers to the high-quality raw milk, the so-called high-quality primrose IgG content reaches 50 mg / ml of ceremonial milk (try to feed the cash milk).
3.3.4 Environmental Management
The results of medical history have found that the explosive of yak diarrhea is related to “bad weather”. But the weather conditions are not predictable and is not controllable. But for the birth of yak, the environment growing is controllable. New raw cattle needs to be born and grow in the dry, clean environment to reduce the incidence of calf diarrhea. For different geographic locations, it can ensure that the new yak and lactating yak grow and grow, clean, and reduce the incidence of calf diarrhea in the local climate status. To manage good cattle farms, you can set up a separate loop to ensure caller. Under different climatic conditions, ventilation, keeping, cooling, etc. in the yak feed environment can also provide a strong guarantee for the growth and development of yak, avoiding the occurrence of yak diarrhea.
Although the yak diarrhea is one of the major health problems facing the yak feeding management, there may be some incidence of incidence through good feeding management, and the cure rate can be effectively improved by standardized treatment procedures. . Standardized preventive measures and standardized treatment procedures are an important guarantee to reduce yak diarrhea, reducing yak cattle dead, and is the weight of health and sustainable development of dairy aquaculture.
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