Inflammation and Bull Disease – Dairy Forum – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
Many diseases facing dairy dairy into breastfeeding are dairy producers, nutritionists and veterinary long-term concerns. The incidence of total diseases within several weeks of childbirth accounts for a significant ratio of many milk cows, 2006), mastitis, uterine, milk, abortion, ketostat, ketosis, and fatty liver are particularly high. And other problems. Not surprising, these problems have been the focus of many research in recent decades. During this time, some areas have made substantial progress (such as milk heat); however, the incidence of other diseases (such as shifts) may be rising (Goff, 2006), and there is sufficient evidence that there is a kind of Dairy disease in transition diseases is more risky, including diseases such as mastitis and ketopathy (GOFF, 2006). The transition from pregnancy into lactation greatly increases the demand for cows, glucose, amino acids, and other nutrients. At the same time, the product is often lowered. The resulting negative energy balance inhibits the immune function and promotes metabolic disorders, may explain the relationship between infective and non-infective transformation diseases, and avoiding the broadest use of metabolic disorders is nutrition management of prenatal cows to prevent The physical condition is excessive. By limiting the storage fatty tank that can be used to mobilize, it is limited to the increase in the concentration of plasma amorphory fatty acid (NEFA) during the transition during the transition, resulting in a decrease in fat storage and ketone generation. Liver (Murondoti et al., 2004; NRC, 2001). However, the results of the control test were inconsistent with the nutritional management of dried cows; some studies have shown that when the physical condition is unaffected, the increase in picked energy intake will lead the benefits (doepel et al, 2002), and limit the intake, even It does not affect physical conditions, and it will also produce more favorable results in other research (Holcomb et al., 2001). These inconsistencies show that our understanding of metabolic disorders is still incomplete. Recent studies emphasize the role of inflammation in infectious diseases, and have shown that inflammation also involves metabolic diseases. The key role of inflammation in many transitional cow diseases may help explain the links between these different disorders, and it is also possible to improve our forecasting and preventing transformation of dairy metabolic issues. This presentation will outline the discovery related to the role of inflammation in the transfer disorder and provide a smooth transition to the lactation period.
Infected inflammatory response
During the infection of mastitis or uterus, immune cells in the body identify the invasive pathogens and activated. When the infection is caused by Gram-negative bacteria, the endotoxin released by bacteria will also activate immunocytes. The activation of local and system host defense mechanisms requires a variety of immune cells between cross-dialogue. One component of this reaction is inflammation. The host of signal molecules released by activated immune cells include inflammatory media, such as nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and cytokines. Although many of these molecules promote local inflammation and blood flow, the inflammatory cytokines have a key role in stimulating systemic inflammatory response, including high temperature rise, increased heart rate, and reduced feeding capacity (Dantzer and Kelley, 2007). Cytokines can alter a number of physiological systems because almost all cell types express cytokine receptors. Key inflammatory cytokines include tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 1β and interleukin 6; these inflammatory cytokines functions together by many of the same signal cascade, and usually in cells produce a similar reaction, One effect of cytokine is to activate the generation of acute proteins. Such proteins are mainly produced by the liver, including trimers, serum amyloids A and C-reactive proteins. The protein involved in the acute phase response to infection is usually present in a very low abundance in the blood flow, but is greatly increased during the systemic activation of the immune system. The importance of acute prolin in infection is unclear, but they have been widely accepted as an inflammatory marker (Petersen et al, 2004). Other proteins are called negative acute proteins because their concentration has dropped sharply during acute phase, which is obvious that breast and uterine infections lead to local and systemic inflammation. Escherichia coli breastitis causes endotoxin to release the bloodstream and increase the plasma concentration (Hoeben et al., 2000) of cytokine and acute phase protein. Similarly, uternelitis is related to the acute phase of the transition of cows (Huzzey et al., 2009); in fact, plasma trimmer increases before clinical symptoms.
Is there an inflammation in metabolic disorders?
An inflammation has been proposed as a lack of deletions in the metabolism of dairy cows (Drackley, 1999). The metabolism of acute systemic inflammation includes adipose tissue mobilization, hepatic candidate decomposition and liver triglyceride accumulation, all of which occur in the transition period. more specifically,Cytokines promote the decomposition of fat storage (Kushibiki et al., 2003), insulin-sensitive damage, and fat decomposition (Kushibiki et al, 2001). All of these conditions are related to the ketosis and fatty liver of cows (INGVARTSEN, 2006). More interesting is the evidence of TNFα to reduce liver glucose (Kettelhut et al., 1987), and once the mobilization NEFA reaches the liver (García-Ruiz et al., 2006). The immune response during the transition is common during the transition due to the risk of physiological stamp and the infection of calves and lactation. Sudden diet changes during the transition can also lead to systemic inflammation. Cows usually feeding the diet of energy density at the beginning of lactation, if this change is too intense, may result in the production of tumor stomas, and then transfer endotoxin into the blood (Khafipour et al., 2009). In addition, it is known that monocytes have more reactions to inflammatory stimuli in the transition period, resulting in more secretion of inflammatory cytokines during stimulation (Sordillo et al, 1995). Mastitis, uterine inflammation and acute acidosis can therefore lead to systemic inflammation, cytokine concentration increase and liver metabolism, and recent research results support the relationship between inflammatory media and metabolic disorders. Ametaj and its colleagues report that in the cows in fatty liver, many of the plasma concentrations of many inflammatory markers increased (Ametaj et al, 2005). Ohtsuka and its colleagues report similar findings that they observed the increase in moderate to severe fatty hepatic milk serum TNFα activity (OHTSUKA et al., 2001). Recently, endotoxin-induced breastitis has been proven to change the expression of metabolic genes in the liver, including the expression of important genes to reduce glucose (JIANG et al., 2008). In the lactate cows, the damage of glucose may result in increased fat tissue mobilization, plasma NEFA increased, and a retrospective study conducted by dairy cows on three commercial Italian cows show that liver inflammation is related to Transformation related (Bertoni et al, 2008). Based on the plasma concentration of acute period, cows are classified as the degree of liver inflammation by quadrants. Cows with the strongest inflammation characteristics experience one or moreThe risk of transform disorders increases eight times, the plasma calcium concentration is lowered, and reproduction takes longer, and has less milk in breastfeeding (Bertoni et al., 2008), oxidative stress and inflammation, Although the importance of inflammation in transition disease is becoming clear, it is not clear that the pathway caused this inflammation is not clear. Infection will definitely trigger this process in some cows, but this is impossible to be the cause of all dairy metabolism disorders. In particular, the incidence of dairy transitional diseases in physical condition is significantly higher (Morrow, 1976), it is difficult to attribute only to infection, except for inflammatory incidents, chronic low inflammation may play in the disorder . Early in the early 1990s, people found that adipose tissue can produce inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα (Hotamisligil et al., 1993). With the widespread list of “fat factors” found in 15 years, human metabolic disorders are increasingly considered to be produced by inflammation caused by obesity. The adipose tissue is now considered an important source of circulating TNFα, and many of the plasma TNFα concentrations in the obese individual of many species in the sheep (Daniel et al., 2003). Based on these findings, infection is no longer an essential component of inflammatory causes of transition metabolism disorders, and lipid peroxide also links plasma lipids to inflammation as possible media (Perssayre et al., 2004). When the cell lipid encounters active oxygen (ROS) such as hydrogen peroxide, a lipid peroxide is produced. Some ROS is always produced in the liver; however, events that occur in early lactation may help increase ROS. An adaptability to increase NEFA to the liver in early lactation is an increase in oxidative capacity of peroxidase (GRUM et al, 1996), and fatty acid oxidation. The enhanced peroxidase oxidation increases the total oxidation capacity of the cells, but the first step of the path is generated by hydrogen peroxide rather than NADH (Drackley, 1999), so it is more controlled by mitochondrial oxidation in ROS production, lactation Early cows increased, plus NEFA concentration increased, increasing the formation of lipid peroxides; transitions of lactation and high body weight were associated with increased lipid peroxidized plasma markers (Bernabucci et al, 2005). Lipid peroxide activates the inflammatory level reaction, and then change the campRaising metabolism (Perssayre et al., 2004). In addition, ROS is particularly harmful to immune cells and reduces the reaction capabilities of the immune system to infection (Spears and Weiss, 2008), in summary, a new model is being explained to explain the development of many transitional diseases. Combination of invasion, including infection, obese cows, and lipid peroxide formation, promoting systemic inflammation during the transition period. Inflammation will damage the immune function, making cows more susceptible to infectious diseases, leading to the risk of metabolism, increase metabolic disorder, potential intervention, inflammation-based transformation disorders to solve these problems, new strategies opened the gate . The complex interaction of oxidative stress, inflammatory level and metabolic pathway allows for a wide range of potential treatment to prevent transform conditions, including antioxidants, metabolic regulators, and anti-inflammatory drugs, antioxidants, diet antioxidants, especially vitamin E and selenium, They promote the ability of ROS neutralization, thereby preventing inflammation from developing. Interestingly, the plasma concentration of α-tocopherol (vitamin E) is reduced in the transition period (Weiss et al., 1990), low antioxidation state and transition cattle disease (Leblanc et al, 2004; Mudron et al, 1997)). Supplement of vitamin E prenatal improving antioxidant state (Weiss, etc., 1990). Considering the importance of antioxidants in regulating inflammation, a number of studies have shown that supplemental vitamin E exceeds traditional recommendations to reduce the incidence and severity of clinical mastitis, this is not surprising (Smith et al, 1984; Weiss, etc. 1990). . Recently, low plasma vitamin E concentration increases in the incidence of fatty liver and shift stomach (Mudron et al., 1997). Surprisingly, there is no published research assessment to supplement the effect of vitamin E on the incidence of liver metabolism or metabolism. Given the supplementary vitamin E can reduce the production of inflammatory cytokines (Poynter and Daynes, 1998) and improve the liver antioxidant state of fatty liver mice (SolTys et al., 2001), supplementing vitamin E can improve the liver function of transition cows. Due to its impact on immune function and its potential to liver function, it is recommended that vitamin E supplements close-up dried cows with at least 1,500 IU / day, selenium is the most important dietary antioxidant in dairy products. Although when the vitamin E state is negligible?The reaction to selenium is most significant, but selenium is unique in neutralizing ROS, and must be considered independently to achieve the best health. The US Food and Drug Administration puts selenium supplements in dairy products in 0.3 ppm, and most farms supplement this level, limiting the attention of selenium in the transitional health strategy. Feeding selenia is not a common and effective means of increasing the status of the animal selenium (Salman et al., 2009). However, most evidence suggests the threshold response to selenium; once the lowest plasma concentration may not have further increased benefits, and in many cases, this threshold seems to be reached with inorganic selenium (Spears and Weiss, 2008). . Despite this, in the soil of selenium, such as the large lake area, it may be worth considering the use of organic selenium, beta-carotene, vitamin A precursor, can also be used as an antioxidant (Spears and Weiss, 2008), vitamin A and β-carrots. The concentration of vegetarians is usually reduced during the transition (Leblanc et al., 2004). Although the concentration of vitamin A is higher than the current suggestion, the breast health (NRC, 2001) is improved in some studies, and the transition period supplementation β-carotene significantly reduces the uterine and placenta. The incidence. Vitamin A supplements (MICHAL et al, 1994). The cows feeding 600 mg / day β-carotene have a plasma retraining plasma concentration (MICHAL et al, 1994) with a cow supplemented with 120,000 IU / Tianvi vitamin A. Metabolic regulatory agents, agonists of peroxidase proliferative activation receptor (PPAR) can improve liver metabolism through several mechanisms. PPARγ agonist (main target peripheral organ) can reduce plasma NefA concentration, while those targeted to promote fatty acid oxidation in the liver, limiting triglyceride accumulation and lipid peroxide Produce (kota et al., 2005). A PPAR gamma agonist (2,4-thiazolidinidone) has been evaluated in the transition cow, which has positive effects on metabolic health (Smith et al, 2007). Unfortunately, PPAR agonists are unlikely to be approved in the near future, choline is a nutrient that limits oxidative stress, although like PPAR agonists, it does not directly neutralize ROS. phaseInverse, choline may limit the formation of lipid peroxides by reducing plasma Nefa concentration and promoting the removal of triglycerides in the liver to limit the formation of lipid peroxides (Cooke et al. Therefore, choline supplementary rumen-protected choline has shown plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration (PINOTTI et al, 2003) during the transition, which may contribute to immune function and inflammation regulation. Anti-inflammatory agents have shown the hope of the treatment of experimental animals in the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID). Indomethacin prevents hypoglycemia after administration of inflammatory cytokines (Kettelhut et al, 1987), and when two NSAID treated, mice with induced fatty liver have a reduced hepatic triglyceride content (YU et al. , 2006), and other discovery. Hypoglycemia and fatty liver are related issues facing many early lactate cows, which show that NSAIDs can also be used in transition cows in rodents. To date, NSAID has produced different results in using NSAID. Many NSAIDs have been evaluated for treating mastitis, and usually they are effective in reducing body temperature, but do not seem to reduce the severity of infection (Morkoc et al, 1993). However, the Carloven display part alleviates the reduction in rumen contraction during mastitis (Vangroenweghe et al., 2005), which may help prevent subsequent shifts. Similarly, a study showed that Frangnine glycosin treatment uterine inflammation accelerates the rear of the uterus (Amiridis et al, 2001), but another study shows that there is no beneficial effect in the whole body or the reproductive road (Drillich et al, 2007). Anti-inflammatory treatment did not always improve the recovery of infection, this may not be strange; after all, inflammation is a key component of the immune system attempt to fight against the inferior pathogen. NSAID’s use may have more prominent inflammation in metabolic disorders, of which it does not provide a significant benefit, only two published studies were found before diagnosis of any disease, where Nsaids were used to transition cows. In the first study, the plasma acute protein concentration of cows treated with acetyl-boiled soslast (aspirin) in breastfeeding, and tends to produce higher milk peaks than the control (Bertoni et al. , 2004). On the contrary, a recent article shows that Frangninlosna gives Frangnine three days in breastfeeding.There is no benefit of amines (Shwartz et al, 2009). In fact, this treatment inhibits the amount of feeding and producing milk in the first week of breastfeeding. However, these two studies are too small (each treatment <15头奶牛），以评估对转换障碍发生率的影响。此外，重要的是要注意虽然NSAID经常被集中在一起，不同的化合物具有不同的作用方式，副作用和清除率，这些因素一起使得评估NSAIDs在镇痛之外的效果非常重要。该领域的未来研究可能提供将短期NSAID治疗视为预防转变性疾病的措施的机会。结论，越来越多的证据表明，炎症可能是许多转变障碍发展的关键因素。因为它导致免疫功能受到抑制和营养代谢改变，所以炎症可能在过渡期间常见的感染和代谢紊乱之间提供新的联系。该模型表明，干旱牛日粮中的膳食抗氧化剂应该在挣扎于过渡性牛病的农场进行重新评估。其他步骤，例如β-胡萝卜素或瘤胃保护的胆碱的掺入，也可以帮助预防氧化应激和随后的炎症。未来的研究可能会提供额外的工具来直接对抗转型奶牛的炎症。
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