Key Function of Exase Soy Soy Phospholipids in Shrimp Nutrients – Aquatic Forum – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
Urudinous soybean phospholipids in shrimp nutrients
Mu Yuyun, Wang Yang
This paper summarizes phospholipid biological functions, and phospholipids are added in the diet. The benefits of shrimp, nutrition and production, the need for phospholipids and their application in the production of shrimp feed and feed costs.
Key words: skim soykin, shrimp, phospholipid
Since 1990, the aquatic industry has become the fastest growing food production department in the world. This is mainly due to the rapid development of shrimp in the 1990s, with an average annual growth of more than 15%. According to the United Nations Food Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2002 shrimp production is 1.3 million tons, accounting for 3.3% of global aquatic production, but the total value is $ 7.3 billion, accounting for 13.6% of the total gauge. Today, the number of shrimps in the world market has been more than fishing, and future production of shrimp farm has grown steadily in the future.
Most of the shrimp farming comes from 8 varieties: brown shrimp (P. Aztecus), California Pest Shrimp (P. Californiensis), China Purple Shrimen (p.indicus), P.indicus, South Beauty Blue Pammer (P.stylirostris ), South America Purple Shrimp (P. Vannamei), Japan’s Shrimp (P. Japonicus), Sparrow P. Monodon. The spots of the East Hemisphere to the shrimp and the wisdom of the West Hemisphere are the most important breeding varieties, and the total amount of farming in the world is in a leading position.
With the continuous in-depth study, the nutrition of vegetarians in various varieties is more and more accurate, to a large extent, to make a positive contribution to the rapid development of the shrimp farm industry. As far as nutrition, the diet is an important source of prawn, but in addition to ordinary fat, the shrimp must supplement special fatty acids, cholesterol and phospholipin to meet the growth needs. Many studies have proven that the growth and survival of shrimps have special needs (TESHIMA, 1997; Coutteau et al., 1997).
1. What is a degreated soybean phospholipid?
Soybean phospholipid is one of the natural components of soybeans, that is, phospholipids, high concentrations of phospholipids. And soy phospholipid is defined asThe composite of polarity and neutral lipids is mainly lipid, triglycerin, sterol, and a small amount of fatty acids, carbohydrates, sheath fat compositions (HRTRAMPF, 1991; HIGGS and DONG, 2000).
Phospholipids consist of two fatty acids and esterification of esterification on glycerol molecules and phosphoric acid molecules on an alcohol group. The usual alcohol group is choline, acetamide, glycerin, serine and inositol. Therefore, the corresponding phospholipid is phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidyl ammide, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylsenamic acid, and phosphatidyl inner alcohol (TACON 1987; HIGGS and DONG, 2000). In soy phospholipids, the main active ingredient is phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidoyacetamide and phosphatidylinositol.
2. Phospholipid biological function
2.1. Cell membrane composition ingredient
phospholipid is a major lipid component of the biological cell membrane. Phospholipin constitutes a cell membrane double phosphate layer to ensure the continuous update and regeneration of cells. The content and type of phospholipids determine the functional properties of the cell membrane, the physical form, and the fluidity of the membrane (HIGGS and DONG, 2000)). Overall, in different phospholipid components, since phospholitholism is the primary component of cell membrane polar fats and fat proteins, it is the most important active ingredient (Coutteau et al., 1997; Coutteau et al, 2000) . If there is no phospholipid in the cell membrane, there is no breathing activity of the mitochondria in the cell, nor does the fluidity of the cell membrane. In the stage of shrimps and in the larva, the speed of shrimp self-synthetic phospholipids is far from satisfying the need for cell membrane update and flow (coutteau et al, 1997).
2.2. Emulsification properties
Phospholipids have hydrophilic and lipophilic dual characteristics. This characteristic allows phospholipids to emulsify various feed fats, making it uniformly dispersed in the small intestine to facilitate further absorption of lipids. The digestive organs of the shrimps have not yet developed, and the bile acid secretion is limited. Therefore, in the early stage of shrimp, phospholipids are escapable (CONKLIN et al., 1980; Coutteau et al, 1980; Coutteau et al, 1997).
2.3. Effects in lipid transport
Endogenous and exogenous lipids in constituting chylitin and fat proteins (ultra lowThe density, low density and high density can be transported in vivo by the blood and lymphatic system of shrimp. Phospholipids are not only an important component of the above lipid transport, but also plays an important role in combination and stability of fat protein. In crustal aquatic animals, phospholipids accelerate triglyceride and cholesterol from the intestinal gland or intestinal to blood lymph and various tissues, and there is a molten organ flow, thereby improving the use of feed fats and cholesterol (Coutteau et al, 1997; Teshima, 1997).
2.4. The precursor
phosphatidylcholine itself is a substance (Li and Peisker, 2005) which can sustained-release biological choline (LI and Peisker, 2005), and choline is the most important neurotenic acetylcholine. Precursor. If no phospholipid is complemented, like other animals, the shrimp also causes the risk of lack of acetylcholine in the lack of precursor, and even cause serious mental disorders.
2.5. Influence of the body fat composition
Due to the indispensable function in lipid transport, the phospholipid can directly affect the fat deposition of the shrimp body. Purpose phospholipids in the insectic body and incense supplementation phospholipids can increase polarity and neutral fat in blood lymph, muscle and tissue residence, especially the amount of phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and N-3 height unsaturated fatty acids (CHEN) Jenn, 1991; Kontara et al., 1998; Coutteau, etc. 2000. The type of feed phospholipid will also directly affect the ratio of N-3 height of the insectic body and the larvae period (TESHIMA et al., 1986; TESHIMA, 1997; coutteau et al., 2000).
3. Benefits of feed phospholipids in shrimp
3.1. Provide energy, phosphate, essential fatty acids, choline and inositol.
The phospholipid has a high digestibility in the aquatic animal. In the diet of insects and young shrimps, phospholipids can be used as direct and efficient sources of metabolic, effective phosphorus, choline and inositol (Hertrampf, 1991; Coutteau et al., 1997).
The crustal animals include the shrimp to the N-3 and N-6 fatty acids are very limited, and few or the N-3 and N-6 multi-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are not exacerbated or removed. HydrhN-3 and N-6 high unsaturated fatty acids (Kanazawa et al., 1979; Kayama et al, 1980; test, TESHIMA, 1992). Therefore, the shrimp feed must provide all linic acid, linoleic acid, twenty-dicaridic acid (DHA) and twenty carbonyl carbonated (EPA) to meet the need for fatty acids (d’Abramo, 1997). Compared to neutral fat, phospholipid is the energy and better capabilities necessary for the growth and survival of the shrimp. The importance of phospholipids is also similar in the later stage of shrimp and in the larvary.
Choline and inositol contained in phospholipids are more bioalized to aquatic animals than artificially synthetic cholines and inositol (Hertrampf, 1991; LI and Peisker, 2005). For example, the effect of feed choline in reducing lobster shelling syndrome is not as good as soy lecithin (TESHIMA, 1997). Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinols are benefits on shrimp growth properties and survival rates, we cannot obtain (Teshima, 1997) from supplemental oriented cholines.
3.2. Interaction with cholesterol
Cholesterol is a very important nutrients in shrimp nutrients, which is not only cellular components and fat protein composition, but also adrenaline, reproductive hormones, vitamin D and bile The metabolic precursor (TACON 1990; Akiyama et al., 1992; Russet, 2001). Therefore, cholesterol is numerical to be a nutrient necessary for all of the crustal animals within the shrimp. According to reports, in South American white shrimp feed, supplementation phospholipids can promote cholesterol absorption, transshipment and utilization, thereby reducing the demand for cholesterol on shrimp (GONG, 1999).
3.3. Improve growth performance, feed conversion, and survival
Many tests in the world can consistently supplement supplementary soy lecithin can significantly improve shrimp growth performance, feed conversion and survival rate, the varieties reported include South America White Purchase ( Camara, 1994; Coutteau et al., 1996), Chinese prawns (Kanazawa, 1993), Japanese prawns (TESHIMA and KANAZAWA 1983; TESHIMA, 1986a; Camara et al, 1996), Polarship with shrimp (CHEN and JENN 1991), Piedal-Pascual, 1985, 1986; Chen, 1993; Paibulkichakul et al, 1998). Conversely, if the lack of phospholipids may result in the growth and development of crustaceous animal. In the feed, supplementation of phospholipids can improve the white peer shrimp, Japanese shrimp, buttons of shrimp (TESHIMA, 1986A; PAIBULKICHAKUL et al, 1998; Coutteau et al, 2000) variety shrimp on the inexplicime shock and the aquaculture water, and prevent it The occurrence of larvae and larvae in the late stage of larvae and shelling syndrome. In addition, adding phospholipids can also improve the efficiency of the effect of fatty acids in the feed, increasing the amount of N-3 high unsaturated fatty acid in the tissue (Coutteau et al., 1997; Teshima, 1997; Russett, 2001). The growth performance and survival rate of shrimp is improved by adding the energy of the energy, essential fatty acids and cholesterols such as energy, essential fatty acids and cholesterol.
3.4. Influence of relaximin reproductive performance
Supplement of soy phospholipids have a good effect on improving the reproductive performance of relaxed shrimps, which is reflected in the increase in the output of unscrupulous shrimp, increasing incubation, increases the number of sperm, Sperm activity is improved (Bray et al, 1989). According to reports, phospholipids are very suitable for promoting the sexual maturity and ovulation of the pond breeding South America (Cahu et al., 1994).
4. The amount of phospholipid and its application on shrimp feed
4.1. The amount of phospholipid is required
phospholipid is an indispensable nutrient in shrimp nutrients, and the quantity of phospholipids of shrimp breeding varieties are shown in Table 1.
The appropriate level of phospholipid adding depends on the prawn variety, age and phospholipid component. Overall, as the age and growth stage of shrimp growth, the amount of phospholipid decreased (Coutteau et al, 1997; TESHIMA, 1997; Russett, 2001). The lack of shrimps on the lack of feed phospholipids is very sensitive. The active phospholipids of young shrimbs are mostly 1.2-1.5% (Coutteau et al., 1997; TESHIMA, 1997). Because of phospholipidAcid alklline and phosphatidylinol are more effective in promoting the growth and survival of the shrimps, supplement phospholiol choline and phosphatidylin inositol helps to reduce shrimp to phospholipids (hertampf , 1991; Teshima, 1997).
Table 1: Different to shrimp varieties
variety, stage, wet weight
Phospholipid source (pure)
Recommended addition level (%)
South American white shrimp
inemids, 2 mg
SOY PC: 95% PC
SL: 86% PL
Coutteau et al. (1996)
Coutteau et al (1996)
体, 0.71 g
SL: 42% PC, 20% Pi, 6% PE, 4% lpc and other phospholipids.
SL: PC 24%, PE 30%, pi 18% and other phospholipids
SL: 35% PC, 18% Pi
SOY PC: 95% PC
TESHIMA, etc. (1983)
Teshima et al. (1986)
SL: 63% PL
SOY PC: 80% PC, 20% LPC
幼,, 1 g
SL: 80% PC, 20% LPC
South Beauty Blue Parlor
SL (ICN Biochemicals)
Bray et al (1990)
* PL, phospholipid; SL, soybean phospholipid; Soy PC, soybean phosphatidylcholine; PC, phosphatidylcholine; pi, phospholipid Acidiacin; PE, phosphatidyl ethanolamine; LPC, hemolytic phosphatidylcholine; PS, phosphatidylsenine.
4.2. Add soy lecithin
as the most important source of phospholipids, soy lecithin is often added to the shrimp feed to meet the need for phospholipids in shrimp. The smaller the age of shrimp, the higher the amount of soy lecithin is added in the merchandise feed. 1 to 2% of crude phospholipids (Akiyama et al, 1992) are usually added, but in fact such doses are difficult to meet the need for shrimp on phospholipids, especially the need for phosphatidylcholine in the shrimp body and larvae.
4.3. Use skim phospholipids to balance the nutrients
In order to achieve the maximum growth and maximum survival of shrimp, it is necessary to optimize the balanced feed, such as the thick fat content in the feed, essential fatty acid, phospholipid (especially phosphatidal gall The fatty acid content and ratio of alkali), cholesterol and N-3 to N-6.However, the level of fat in the shrimp feed is 5 to 8% (Akiyama et al., 1992). If the fat content in the feed may cause increase in mortality and decrease in growth rate. Compared with crude phospholipin, the phospholipid is low, the phospholipid and phospholipateliocarphine content is higher, so that the addition of skim soy is added to the shrimp, which is beneficial to save formulation space, which is beneficial to optimize the fat content of the feed fat, so that the essential fatty acid, phospholipid And cholesterol or the like can still achieve the ideal level and ratio under feed fat level limits. Considering cost-effectiveness, the recommended addition of skim soy phospholipids in shrimp feed is 0.5 to 1.0%. 4. Saving effects of skimming soy lecithin Compared to neutral fat, synthetic choline and inositol, skimming soybean phospholipin provides more biologically active linoleic acid, linoleic acid, choline And inositol (Hertampf, 1991; Coutteau et al., 1997). Supplemental degreasing soybean phospholipids and neutral fat will be more conducive to meeting the need for shrimp to essential fatty acids. The artificially solved choline in the cultured water will be quickly dissolved, and the number of available numbers is very expensive. If 10 kilograms of skim soybean phospholipids are added to each ton of feed, 36 mg of choline, 35 mg inositol, and 0.29 grams of effective phosphorus were added per kilogram of feed. Therefore, the addition of skim soybean phospholipids not only saves the cost of choline, intramonol and effective phosphorus in aquatic feed, but also increases the utilization of choline and inositol.
4. Improve the properties of shrimp feed
Compared to crude phospholipids, skimming soy phospholipids are easy to operate in feed processing, accurately additive, easy to uniformly mix (HERTAMPF, 1991; Russett, 2001) . Adding skim soykins can effectively improve the stability of shrimp in water, reduce the loss of water-soluble nutrients such as B vitamins and trace minerals and other additives (such as amino acids and snufts). Phospholipids can effectively protect vitamin A and vitamin E when feed processing and storage, prevent oxidation, stimulating feed consumption, increase the utilization of nutrients in feed (HERTAMPF, 1991; Coutteau et al, 1997; Russett, 2001; Li and Peisker, 2005 ). The above characteristics of phospholipids are essential to young water products.
Supplementary phospholipids were proved in many of the shrimp growth and survival. This is because the phospholipid is formed in the cell membrane and fat protein, and the absorption, transportation and utilization of feed lipids including essential fatty acids and cholesterols, providing a critical role in providing choline, inositol, and essential fatty acids. However, the ability to synthesize phospholipids in vivo in vivo is far from satisfying its own needs, so supplementation phospholipids will inevitably. Due to the difference between the variety and age, the experimental conditions and the composition and purity of the experimental conditions and phospholipid sources, there is also a difference in the need for phospholipids. Most of the phospholipids of shrimp are mostly 1 to 3%.
Due to the high concentration of phosphatidylcholine and phospholipidin, supplementation such pure phospholipids can be balanced and optimized to balance and optimize the essential fatty acids, cholesterol, phospholipids of the feed to the shrimp formulation. In particular, the content and ratio of phosphatidylcholine or the like, and can significantly improve the characteristics and performance of the feed. Rating
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