Submite Feed & Nutrition – Fur Animal – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
The feed of mink is mainly divided into animal feed, plant feed and additive feed.
(1) Animal feed includes fish, meat, and by-product feed, dry animal feed, milk and eggs.
(2) Plant Feed includes cereal, cookies, and sparse.
(3) Additive feed includes vitamins, antibiotics, antioxidants and inorganic salts.
2. What nutrients are contained in feed?
The nutrient ingredient of feed is: moisture, protein, fat, vitamin and inorganic salts.
3. What is the requirements for the supply of food and meat fur beasts such as 貂 貂?
The basic structural unit of the protein is amino acid, and there are a variety of amino acid linkages to a protein. Animals need to be in the need of
amino acids. There are two requirements for the number of western medicine on proteins. Protein is the main
of various tissue constituting the mink body, its role is that fat and sugar can not be replaced, and the protein is insufficient will affect the life activities of the mink. However, there are excessive proteins, and it will also be given
to the occurrence of certain diseases. In addition to the quantity, the mink also requires a good quality protein with good quality.
4. Which feeds contain full price protein?
The protein is composed of amino acid, amino acids are also divided into essential amino acids and non-essential amino acids. Anyone in the hub body cannot be synthesized, or although
can be synthesized but the speed and quantity of the synthesis cannot satisfy its normal growth, the amino acid must be applied to the essential amino acid. In the
of the water body, it can be synthesized by other substances or less required, and there is no need for feed to supply the amino acid called non-essential amino acids. All
essential amino acid protein, the highest nutritional value, called full price protein. It contains only some essential amino acid proteins, the nutritional value is lower than that is low, and is a non-high price protein.
Feed containing full price protein mainly has muscle, blood, liver, kidneys, milk and eggs of mammals. There are only a few varieties in the fish
(yellow flowers, flying fish, etc.)Full price protein.
5. What essential amino acids are needed such as the carnivorous fur beast?
The type and number of essential amino acids need to be different from animals. For example, there are 13 kinds of pigs, and there are 11 kinds of chickens, and there are about 11 kinds of water, namely: lazy
amine, tryptophan, histidine, phenylalanine, leucine, isoleucine , Threonine, methionine, arginine, ordee.
6. How can the amino acid in the diet be complementary?
We know that the amino acid of proteins in most feed is incomplete, not to lack this, that is, one less. Therefore,
when the feed is single, the utilization rate of proteins is not high. When feeding in two or more feeds, the amino acids contained in several feeds can be complemented with each other
, so that the essential amino acid in the diet tends to be complete, thereby improving the utilization and nutritional value of the feed protein. This role is called protein
Quality complementary effect. For example, see Table 1-1
7. What are the requirements for the food of the sausage to the supply of fat?
When analyzing the feed ingredient, all materials extracted with diethyl ether are generally referred to as fat. It includes fat and lipid compounds, and the like.
Fat is the essential component constituting the body, and is the main source of thermal energy of animal body, and is also the best storage form. 1 gram fat is over the body
Peroxidation can produce 38.9 kWh, 2.25 times higher than the sugar.
The amount of carnium fur beasts such as the mine has a lower need to be lower than that of the protein, and there is a certain proportion (see the 28th question of this book.).
Insufficient fat affects growth, breeding, and even causes the disease; fat is too much, will seriously affect the feed levels, resulting in falling capacity
low. The reproductive period also requires fat containing essential fatty acids. Fat must be fresh, and the fat of the oxidized fat is extremely harmful to the fur beast.
8. What is fatty acid? What is a necessary fatty acid?
Fatty acid is an important component constituting fat, and more than 30 kinds have been found. Fatty acid and glycerol constitute a variety of varieties and complex mixed gans
oil. According to the nature of fatty acids, it can be divided into two major categories of saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. The chemical properties of saturated fatty acids are relatively stable, and
is not easily oxidized. The chemical properties of unsaturated fatty acids are extremely unstable. The higher the content in fat, the lower the melting point, the higher the iodide, and the oxygen
In the animal life activities, it is necessary to synthesize or cannot be synthesized in vivo, and unsaturated fatty acids must be obtained from the feed, referred to as
is a essential fatty acid. In fur beast, linoleic acid, secondalla oil, and twenty carbon tetra dilute acid are essential fatty acids. Practice has proven:
In the breeding period, it is not only important to pay attention to the quality of proteins, but also can’t be overlooked. The supply and essential amino acid of the essential fatty acid
9. Why does the fat be oxidized and fat? What harm is there for animal machines?
The oxidation and acid failure of fat is the complex chemical change process in the storage process, thereby losing the original nutritional value. Its
is that the fat color is compared to the normal period, and the taste is bitter and a special smell. In the feed in the feed and the oxygen ginseng in the air
and the oxidation process, there is a great promotion of fatty acid defeat. Especially fish feeds such as unsaturated fatty acid content are more likely to be oxidate.
The rate of fat oxidation or fatness is proportional to the temperature of the feed feed. The sea fish is stored in the -18 ~ -25 degree cooler for 3 months, and the fat
is only mild enough; in the cold storage of -5 to -10 degrees for 3 months, fat is seriously fatigue. Fish feed early cold storage time, one
can not exceed half a year, otherwise the reproductive period is not available. Due to the fat and decomposition product (peroxide, aldehyde, ketones, low molecules
fatty acid, etc.) directly act on the digestive tract mucosa, so that small intestines are inflamed, causing severe digestive disorders. Sorry fat decomposition destroying
in the feed, making the appetite of the beast, slow growth or stagnation, serious damage to the health, abscess or rash, reduce fur
Quality . Especially the water is fatty in pregnancy.More sensitive, it will cause a dead or bad tire, weak and biscuits, and biscuits.
10. Physiological effects in sugar
Sugar are organic substances of three elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, wherein the oxygen and hydrogen ratio is 1: 2, and water Same, there is a carbohydrate.
It includes two major categories: crude fibers and nitrogen-free leaching. The main components of the crude fiber are cellulose, lignin, keratin, and the like, which is not easy to remove
in the feed. Net-nitrogen-free leaching includes starch and sugar. In fact, the digestion of the mink to the sugar is limited to a portion of the nitrogen-free leaching. Crude
The fiber does not have actual nutritional significance to the mink, but there are small amounts of cellulose in the feed to promote the normal peristalsis of the digestive tract. The primary life of the sugar
The function is to provide energy, the remaining portion is converted into fat in the body, as energy storage. Although the sugar can not be converted to protein,
, it is reasonable to increase the decomposition of proteins, which has the effect of saving protein, preventing ketosh (fat incomplete oxygen
Excessive product). There is often a certain amount of sugar in the diet, which is useful for regulating the material material metabolism, and is also effective measures to prevent acid poisoning
. However, there are too many sugars in diet, and it is harmful to the mink. Because there are too many sugars, the content of the protein in the diet is as low as
11. What is the physiological function of vitamins?
Vitamin belongs to the low molecular organic compound necessary for maintaining normal physiological functions of animal body. It is much more intensive than other ingredients, but it is essential than other components
. Once the feed is lacking vitamins, the physiological function of the body can be disordered, and various vitamin deficiency are occurring.
Artificially breeded fur beast, especially carnivorous fur beasts, itself cannot synthesize vitamins or synthesis, and a lot of need for vitamins
. Although the manual feed contains some vitamins, it has been
if the storage and processing modulation process has been
can not meet the needs of the animal, so the artificial breeding beast must be supplemented with vitamins.
12. DimensionWhat kinds of breast is divided into?
Vitamin can be divided into two major categories of lipolytic vitamins and water soluble vitamins. Lipin soluble vitamins refer to vitamins (
such as soluble in fat and insoluble in water
have vitamin A (A1, A2), D (D1, D2, D3, D4), E, K (K1, K2), etc. . Water-soluble vitamins refer to water-soluble salvation
, including vitamin B (B1, B2, B6, nicotinic acid, pantine, B12, folic acid, bioacid, choline, etc.) and vitamin C .
13 fat-soluble vitamins on the sausage, such as the sausage, the food beasts?
(1) Vitamin A can promote cell proliferation and growth, protect the completeness and health of organ epithelial tissue structure, maintain normal vision; can also promote
into the beast growth, so that bone marrow development is normal And enhance the resistance to various infectious diseases; also participate in the formation of sex hormones, and improve the feeding. At the lack of
When vitamin A, the growth and development of the beast will cause the growth and development of the beast, epidermal and mucosal epidemic, and severely affect the fertility and fur quality.
(2) Vitamin D (borno alcohol) is a steroid derivative, mainly two, ie vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. The vitamin D2 is present in the plant
feed, and the predecessor is a wheat keratinol, converted to D2 after irradiation of ultraviolet rays in the sun. The predecessor of vitamin D3 is 7-oxygen cholesterol, and
In the skin and feathers of livestock and poultry, it is converted to vitamin D3 after ultraviolet irradiation in sunlight. The main function of vitamin D is to maintain normal
Calcium phosphorus metabolism, which is lacking not only cartilage, but also affects reproductive performance. Vitamin D is mainly supplied with fish liver oil, animal liver
dirty, milk, and eggs also contain vitamin D.
(3) Vitamin E (spoon phenol) is an effective antioxidant, which has protective effects of vitamin A, participating in fat metabolism, and maintains the normal function of secreting glands, Sexual cells are developed normally and improve reproductive performance. The main symptoms of the lack of vitamin E are: the mother beast can be pregnant,
But the fetus will soon die and absorb; the quality of the behemas decreased, the sperm activity is reduced, the number is reduced, and even disappears.In addition, as
fat metabolic disorders, yellow fat disease occurs. Plant Sir’s embryonic oil contains rich vitamin E.
(4) Vitamin K is a substance necessary for maintaining normal solidification of the body, and the synthetic thrombin is catalyzed. The vitamin K1 mainly present
In the green plants, vitamin K2 is mainly present in the microorganism. Artificial synthetic vitamin K, called vitamin K3.水 貂 vitamin
K deficiency is relatively small, but the intestinal dysfunction or long-term use of antibiotics, inhibits microbial activity in the intestines, and minimizes the synthesis of vitamin K
, occasionally occur. Typical symptoms of clinical, oral, gum, nasal bleeding In the feed, the supply of fresh vegetables can prevent the lack of vitamin K. Vitamin K should be taken when treating hemorrhagic enteritis.
14. Water soluble vitamin does the function of the mortarium body?
(1) The vitamin B is mainly a coenzyme of cell enzyme, involved in various reactions in sugar, fat and protein metabolism. Its main types:
1 Vitamin B1 (sulphic) water and other carnivorous fur beasts are basically uncomfortable, relying on diet to meet the needs. When lack, sugar
The metabolic intensity and fat utilization rate are rapidly weakened, and there is a loss of appetite, digestive disorder, paralysis, neck, neck, tremor, etc.
inflammatory shape. Glycan bran, beans, animal internal organs, milk, eggs and yeasts are high in vitamin B1.
2 Vitamin B2 (Ribin) constitutes a counted auxiliary group in the body, participating in the respiration of cells. When the vitamin B2 is lacking, the new generation
Xie is obstacles, the growth and development of the beast grows, the disease and the disease and the disease and the disease of the substantive organ have been rational. Vitamin B2 is wide
existed in green feeding and milk, eggs, yeast.
3 Vitamin B6 (pyrotoxin) involved in protein metabolism, maintains normal hematopoietic function, supply of nutrients required for nervous system. At the time of vitamin
B6, the nervous system is obstacles, showing spasm, stagnation, and causing anemia andDermatitis. Vitamin B6 is stored in a large amount of yeast,
, animal liver, kidney and muscle.
4 Niacin (Vitamin PP) It is a composition of coenzyme, which is an important role in the metabolism of the body. When the lack of lack of appetite,
Skin is inflamed, and the moratorial is coated.
5 pantothenic acid (vitamin B3) is a component constituting the composition of coenzyme A, which is closely related to the metabolism of proteins and fat. When lack, the beast has food
, but the growth and development is blocked, the physical weakness is weak, which seriously affects the growth of the year, and the winter hair will make the plush whitening.
6 Vitamin B12 (cyanobacine) Its main role is to regulate the hematopoietic processes of the bone marrow, closely related to the maturity of red blood cells. When the lack of lack, the red
cell concentration decreased, and the neurological sensitivity is enhanced, and the reproductive force is seriously affected. Vitamin B12 is only present in animal feed, and the liver content is high.
As long as the animal feed is fresh, it is generally not lacking.
7 folic acid (vitamin B11) is a vitamin to prevent malignant anemia. Suspered and tubers, rooted plants contain folic acid.
8 Biotin (vitamin H) has an impact on the metabolism of the organic substance of the body, and is widely present in a protein-rich feed and green feed.
When the choline is lacking, there will be more fat deposition in the liver, forming fatty liver, and also caused the growth and development of the beast to grow, the mother and beast is insufficient,
seriously affects the plush Color (becomes yellow brown). All natural fat feeds contain choline.
(2) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is involved in the production of cellular or in vivo oxidative reactions, with detoxification. When vitamin C is deficient,
Red claw disease occurs. Green juicy feed and fruits are rich in fruits.
15. What is the function of inorganic salt?
Inorganic Salts In the confession of the fur beast, there is less energy, but it is important in nutrients and physiology. It is the various important functions of the body cells
, such as oxidation, developmental, secretion, proliferation, etc. need inorganic salts. It is for maintaining the organism
The function of weaving, especially the normal excitability of nerve and muscle tissue. The ion concentration such as sodium and potassium can increase the excitability of the neurological
; the ion concentration of calcium and magnesium can reduce excitability. Inorganic salts are also involved in the digestiveness and absorption process of food, such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) and bile in the gastric liquid
, which are essential for digestion absorption of various nutrients. Inorganic salts are still in the process of maintaining water
Xie Balance, acid-base balance, regulate normal osmosis pressure of blood.
16. What is the important function of calcium and phosphorus? What is the appropriate proportion in the diet?
The main function of calcium and phosphorus is to form the bones and teeth of the fur beast, there are still a small part existing in serum, lymph, and soft tissue. The beast and pregnancy
pregnant, the amount of breastfeeding beast has a large amount.
Since the fur beast body is absorbed calcium and phosphorus in a certain proportion, phosphorus is supplemented in the diet or calcium, or phosphorus, calcium, should be phosphorus according to the diet
, The calcium content is determined. Suitable proportion of calcium and phosphorus is generally 2 to 1: 1. The bone flour contains more than 30% of calcium, containing 15% of phosphorus, which is the most supplementary feed of
. Calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, oyster powder, egg shell powder mainly contain calcium; cyanium cycal phosphate contains mainly phosphorus.
17. Why do you have to add salt in the feed?
The salt is the source of sodium and chlorine in the fur beast. Sodium has important physiological effects, maintaining the balance between cells and blood osmotic pressures, and maintains the acid and alkali balance in vivo, so that organizational tissue maintains a certain amount of moisture. At the same time, there is also a regulatory effect on the heart and muscle activity. Chlorine in the body
is widely distributed, all in cells, various tissues and body fluids, most of which exist in blood and lymph, and the other in the form of hydrochloric acid
In the gastric juice, if the fur beast is lack of chlorine, hydrochloric acid in the gastric fluid is reduced, and the appetite is significantly reduced, and even digestive disorders. In order to satisfy the needle of Mao
, the beast is required to add salt to the feed daily, each daily use is 0.5 ~ 0.8 grams, should not be too much to avoid poisoning.
18. Water to MaoWhat are the nutrients in the beast? Why do you have to pay attention to drinking water in the fur beast for a long time?
Water is an important component of the body, and is also an indispensable substance in the life of the fur beast. The content of moisture in the normal adult fur beast
The more weight of 65%, the water content of the fetus and the beast is higher. All metabolic processes in the animal are inseparable from water. The fur beast is losing its
all fat and more than half of the protein can still be alive, but the loss of 10% will lead to death. Therefore, the full year should be supplied
19. What is the characteristics and use requirements of the type of food and meat fur beasts such as 貂 貂?
According to the difference in animal feed species in diet, it can be roughly divided into four kinds of diet.
(1) The diet maind by fresh sea fish is common in the coastal region, and uses more feeding, pay attention to the addition of yeast and vitamin B1.
Pregnancy should try to match some meat or meat by-products, and the beast growth and development will pay attention to increase the fat of fat in the diet.
(2) The diet is commonly used by dry animal feed, which is common in all kinds of beasts from the animal husbandry and coastal and freezing. In the mother and beast pregnancy
, it is best to match a part of the fresh full price protein (milk, lamb, eggs, etc.) to improve the premium and guarantee
Strovation amount. The growth period and the replacement period should also be appropriately added to the fat, and pay attention to the replenishment of vitamins A, E, and C. When feeding dry feed, the fur
The amount of beast water is increased, and it should be guaranteed to drink water.
(3) The diet is common in the pastoral and meat by-products, and the affiliated bearer of the pastoral or meat factory. Pay attention to the quality of the feed in the diet
Corrupt metamorphic and pathogenic contaminated feed cannot be utilized. At the same time, it is necessary to ensure the supply of inorganic salts, vitamin A and vitamin B1
(4) Fish, meat mixed diet, using such cyclasses, mostly by-products that rely on aquatic products or meat joint processing plant Feed fur beast
Feeding field. This diet is characterized by improving the total price of proteins, the proportion of protein and energy is easy to adjust,Become an ideal day grain.
20. Is it possible to use fish feed to feed the carnivorous fur beast? How does its diet ratio match?
Fish feed is one of the important sources of eating animal protein, rich in resources, is relatively low, but its nutritional value is not as good as
meat. There are more unsaturated fatty acids in fish feed, and it is extremely vulnerable to oxidate; the protein of fish is also extremely easy to corrupt, so it is necessary to strengthen freezing
Insurance. Fully use fish to feed the carnivorous fur beast has not tasted, but not as good as meat, fish mixed effect. Especially the variety of fish is too single
, the effect is not good. As the only source of animal feed as animal feed, it must be better than a variety of butter fish. Carbene fur beast
When animal feed in diets is full of fish, its proportion can account for 70% to 75% of dietary weight, which is more than 20% to 30% by using meat.
At the same time, attention should be paid to the supply of vitamin B1 and vitamin E to ensure good production results.
21. When you use fish powder or dried fish, when you eat meat fur beasts, how much proportion should be used in diet? How to match?
(1) The prime proportion of foods with fish powder and 40% to 60% of proteins with fish powder, and 2.5 to 4% salt. Feed the fur beast with fresh quality
, when 20% to 25% of animal proteins in the diet, the childbed is more normal. In the diet of
, fish can account for 40% to 45% of animal feed proteins, and the rest is abandoned pork, cattle and sheep internal organs, fish isometric
Material feed match. The fish powder is the highest salt. You must soak it with water before use, soak 2 to 3 times during soaking.
(2) The ratio of the diet and mixed with dried fish, and is used for fish feeding fur beasts, the key is the quality of dried fish. Premium dried fish
can account for 70% to 75% of diet animal feed, but it cannot be replaced with dried fish. Due to the dry fish in the sun, some essential amino acids,
essential fatty acids and vitamins were destroyed. So, in the fur beastUsing dried fish, you must match the full price protein feed (fresh meat, egg
milk and pig liver, etc.). The amount of matching should not be less than 25% to 30% of the diet animal feed. The beast feeding period and winter hair use dried fish for a long time, and
is mixed with fresh waste pork or adding vegetable oil to make up for the lack of fat fish.
22. What kind of fish can be born? Which fish must be cooked or cannot be used to feed the fur beast?
Maoe beast is as high as 87% ~ 92% of the fresh sea fish protein, which is easy to absorb, good premises, it is best to feed. Milting the oceana
The margin fish needs to be cooked and disinfected, and the digestibility is about 5%. Most freshwater fish (especially carbiat fish) contain sulfur
amine enzymes that have destructive effects on vitamin B1 (thiome). Fishing these fish often causes vitamin B1 deficiencies and should be cooked after cooking.
Corrupted fish and poisonous fish will definitely not be used to feed the fur beast to avoid poisoning.
23. What is the nutritional value of livestock meat feed? How to use it?
The livestock and poultry meat feed is the most precious feed of fur beasts, the amount of nutritional value is high, and it is an important source of procramic feed. It contains all essential amino acids similar to the fur
toast, and the quantity and proportion is also a nutrient component such as fat, vitamin and inorganic salts
nutritional value. The utilization of meat feeds is good for feeding than cooked, and the digestibility is also high. Therefore, all
of the health check is available. For the meat, unknown sources or pollution, it is best to feed after high temperature treatment. After the death, the livestock body is required
carefully fed after processing and high temperature treatment, so as not to cause botulinum clostridosis. Meat (such as abandoned pork, pox pork)
To remove fat to feed. At the same time, it is necessary to match fish or meat by-products to reduce feeding costs.
24. How should I treat the fur beast with acne pork? How much proportion is it in the feed?
Pork is a low-cost meat feed source of fur beast. It is used to perform high temperature treatment. 1 in the dietWhen 5% ~ 20% of ripene pork,
is equipped with a proportion of low-fat small butter fish, rabbit meat, rabbit skeleton or fish powder, etc., and increase the amount of vitamin E to achieve better results. .
25. What is the nutritional value of milk feed? How to use it?
The milk feed is one of the sources of the full price protein of the fur beast. It contains all essential amino acids, the composition of various amino acids and the needle of the fur beast
are similar, and it is easily absorbed. The use of milk feed is generally only used in the growth period of reproductive and beast, and has a good promotion of the mother and beast lactation
and the growth and development of the beast. The pregnancy is generally 30 ~ 40 ml of fresh milk every day, and each year is fed 15 ~ 20
, the maximum amount is not more than 50 ~ 60 ml, otherwise there is a diarrhea. Feeded fresh milk must be heated (70 ~ 80 degrees, 15 minutes)
After disinfection. No fresh milk can be replaced with whole milk powder. First put the milk powder in a small amount of warm water, then dilute 7 to 8 times with boiling water
to be fed within 2 hours after modulation to prevent the acid defeat.
26. What is the nutritional value of egg feed? How to use it?
Chicken, duck, goose eggs are a high-priced protein feed value value, and contain lecithin, a variety of vitamins and inorganic salts. The benefits of the egg feed
are prepared for the breeding phase, and the beast is 10 ~ 20 grams per day, and the semen quality can be improved. Pregnant mother and beasts and bumbler beasts supply
20 ~ 25 grams, not only beneficial to embryo development and improve the living power of the beast, but also promote the secretion of milk. The egg must be fed, and the eggs contained in
will destroy the biotin in the feed, so that the mink, plush falling and other diseases. The incubated waste egg product (stone eggs
or hair) can also feed the beast, but must be cooked in time, ensure fresh quality, corruption, corruption, and fresh eggs
27. What are the main plant feeds suitable for feeding a fur beast? How to use it?
(1) AntiquitiesFeed is the main source of sugar in fur beast. Commonly used corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, soy, etc. Cereal feeding
Generally accounting for 10% to 15% of the total amount of fur and beasts (escaped products). The fur beast has a lower digestibility of the cereals and must be pulverized to the
woven or made a grilled cake. When the water content of the grain has more than 15%, it is easy to change, and the metamorphic grain is strictly prohibited to feed the fur beast. A variety of grain mixes
better than single valley, the proportion of soybeans should not exceed 30% of the total cereals, otherwise it will cause diarrhea. Soy can be made into a bean juice to feed the fur beast, and the amount of diet cannot exceed 5% of the weight of the diet. The method is to soak the soybean for 10 ~ 12 hours, then pulverize boil, filter with coarse cloth, ie
After the bean juice, after cooling, the feed is added. It can also be used as a simple production, and the soy is processed into a fine surface. According to 1 kg of bean noodles
8 ~ 10 liters of water, boiled with a pot without filtration.
(2) Pie, meal feed soybean pie,, linen, sunflower and peanut cake, rich protein, but fur beast to plant egg
white matter digestion rate is very low Therefore, the proportion in the diet should not be too large. The pie, the meal should be cooked and fed, and it is not easy to digest. Pie, rice feed
should not exceed 20% of the cereal feed, otherwise it will cause indigestion and dysentery.
(3) Fruit and vegetable feed generally account for 10% to 15% of total diet. Commonly used cabbage, cabbage, rape, carrot, spinach, etc. Spinach has
Justness, generally mixed with cabbage. Untuffed printed fruit can also be given by vegetables. When you lack vegetables in early spring, you can collect Pu
Giry and other wild vegetables feeding the fur beast.
What is the standard of mink breeding?
my country’s feed has a wide range of feed, and the feed composition and type of mink sun grains are varied. The climatic conditions in various regions have great differences. Therefore,
did not develop national unified science standard. It is introduced to some empirical standards for reference.
(1) The standard based on heat-based diet is based on the different periods of the mink.The heat required by the sky and stipulates that
in the diet
Digestive protein (see Table 1-2).
(2) The standard based on the weight-based diet is based on the total weight of the feed per day in different periods of the mink and stipulates that
can be digested in the dietary Quantity, and percentage of weights of various feeds (see Table 1-3).
(3) Different biological periods of vitamin preparations in the 貂 日 日 量 时 期 不同 生 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分 部分Vitamin preparations, specific additives are shown in Table 1-4.
29. What is the basis of the fur beast diet?
(1) Guarantee that the nutrition requires that the beast is different in different feeding periods, and the need for various nutrients is different. When determining the diet, according to the heat energy and various nutrients of the feed
The content, according to the characteristics of fur beast nutrition, as far as possible to meet the requirements of the daily standard.
(2) When a reasonable adjustment is determined to determine the dietary standard, we must fully consider the local feed conditions and existing feed types, try to make nutrition
full, reasonable match. Particularly should pay attention to the complementary action of amino acids to meet the needs of essential amino acids, improve the benefits of proteins in daily places
. It is necessary to consider reducing the cost of feeding, but also to ensure the nutritional needs of the fur beast.
(3) Avoiding the physical and chemical properties of various feeds, with diet, with each other, the feed of antagonism or destruction is to avoid
(4) Maintaining relatively stable in combination with diet, also considering the past day grain level, the body mine of the animal group, and the existing problems, but also
keep the feed relative Stable, avoid sudden changes in the feed variety, otherwise the deformedity will be reduced.
30. How to develop a feed?
The specific embodiment of the feed list is the standard. There are currently two ways to calculate based on weight and heat.
(1) Thermal method is calculated based on thermal energy.
Step 1:Determine the temperature standard of diet and the heat ratio of various feeds.
Assume that it is currently a mortal pregnancy. Refer to the day grain heat standard (see Table 1-2), each available per day can be supplied 1130 k. According to the feed
, it is determined that the margin fish accounted for 40% of the energy, 17% of cooked pox pigs, pig liver accounting for 8%, milk accounted for 7%, mixed grain powder, 22%, Chinese cabbage
2%, the feed yeast accounts for 4%.
Step 2: According to the energy ratio of various feed, the corresponding weight of various feeds in each 418.4 k-coke energy is calculated.
Calculated according to the nutrient components of various feeds. Such as 351.5 kgfocular per 100 grams of sea fish, then 167.4 kW (at 418.4 kW
40% of China-sea fishing fish) Is it equivalent to how many grams of harvested fish?
ie: x = 100 * 167.4 / 351.5 = 47.6 grams
The corresponding weight of various feeds in each 418.4 kW is:
The energy of each 418.4 kWh
Haishang fish 167.4 千焦 47.6 grams
Cooked pox pork 71.1 千焦 5.9 grams
Pig liver 33.4 kg 6.7 grams
9.3 km of milk 29.3 千焦
Corn powder 92.1 千焦 8.6 grams
Chinese cabbage 8.4 kgdea 14.3 grams
Feed Yeast 16.7 thousand 1.8 grams
Total 418.4 千焦 95.5 grams
Step 3: Calculate the total amount of feed for each mink daily.
In the second step, the number of various feeds required for 418.4 kWh, the energy required for this period is 1130 kW, so various feed
is 418.4 thousand The corresponding weight in the focal heat is multiplied by 2.7, and the weight in the diet can be obtained.
Haishang fish 47.1 g × 2.7 ≈ 129.0 grams
Ripe pox pork 5.9 g × 2.7 ≈ 16.0 grams
Pig liver 6.7 g × 2.7 ≈ 18.0 grams
Cow milk 10.6 g × 2.7≈29.0 grams
Corn powder 8.6 grams × 2.7≈23.0 grams
Chinese cabbage 14.3 g × 2.7 ≈ 39.0 grams
Feed yeast 1.8 g × 2.7 ≈ 5.0 grams
total 95.5 g × 2.7 ≈ 259.0 grams
Step 4: The content of digestible protein can be digested in the day. The large-scale omelet also regularly accounts the content of fat and sugar, and the specific method is the same as the accounting
Check the nutritional composition table of various feeds (refer to Appendix 2). Take the protein content (%) of various feeds in the diet,
, the number of proteins contained in various feeds in the diet is obtained, and the total protein in the diet is. Quantity.
Feed Types Dietary Crystal Number of proteins in the day of the grain
Haishang fish 128.5 × 13.8% ≈17.7 grams
Cooxyxyp pork 15.9 × 23.1% ≈ 3.7 grams
Pig liver 18.1 × 17.3% ≈3.1 gram
25.6 × 2.9% ≈ 0.83 grams
Corn Powder 23.2 × 9.0 % ≈2.1 gram
Chinese cabbage 38.6 × 1.4% ≈ 0.5 grams
Feed yeast 4.9 × 38.0% ≈ 1.9 grams
Total 257.8 29.83 grams
Prove that the content of protein in the day grain can meet the nutritional needs of this issue.
Step 5: Calculate the amount of feed required by 100 mortes of the whole group, then assign early and late distribution with the proportion of 4: 6 (see Table 1-5).
(2) The weight method is calculated based on weight. Now makes the feed formulation of 100 pregnancy, the feed formulation of the mother.
The first step: determine the weight standards of diet and the proportion of feed varieties.
According to the daily standard table (Table 1-3), 320 grams of mixed feed should be supplied daily. It is determined that the sea fish is 50%, beef 10%, milk 5%, chicken
egg 3%, corn flour 10%, 12% Chinese cabbage, 10% water. Each day, 3 grams of yeast, 2 grams of bone flour, vitamin A1000 unit, vitamin D
100 units, vitamin B12 mg, vitamin B20.5 mg, vitamin C20 mg, vitamin E4 mg, salt 0.5 grams.
Step 2: Calculate the weight of various feeds per water per day.
Japanese food standards various types of feed diet
Weight ratio of feed ratio
Hair fish 320 g × 50% = 160 Ke
Ripene pork 320 g × 10% = 32 grams
Pork liver 320 g × 3% = 9.6 grams
milk 320 g × 5% = 16 grams
Corn powder 320g × 10% = 32 grams
Chinese cabbage 320 grams × 12% = 38.4 grams
Water 320 g × 10% = 32 grams
Total 320 grams × 100% = 320 grams
Step 3: Verify the content of digestible protein in diet.
Charging the feed nutritional composition (refer to Appendix 2), by the weight of various feed proteins in the diet, by the amount of the feed protein (%), adding
, The amount of protein in the sun.
Harbed fish 160 grams × 13.8% ≈ 22.1 gram
Cooked pox pork 32 g × 20.6% ≈ 6.6 grams
Pork liver 9.6 g × 14.8% ≈ 1.4 grams
milk 16 grams × 2.9% ≈0.5Ke
Corn powder 32g × 9.0% ≈2.9 grams
Chinese cabbage 38.4 g × 1.4% ≈ 0.5 grams
Total = 34 grams
Day The protein content in the grain can meet the needs of the post-gestational pregnancy.
Fourth step: Calculate the amount of feed required by 100 貂 貂 貂 每 每 每 并 分 早 早 早 早 早 早 早 早 早 早 分 早 早 分 早 分 早 早 早 早 分 分 早 早 早 分 早 [单 分[[[[[[[[[[[[[制[[ (See Table 1-6)
31. How to process modulation of fur beast feed?
(1) Machining of meat and fish feed
First, fresh sea butter fish and test qualified beef and mutton, broken rabbit, liver, stomach, kidney, heart And blood, etc.
Although the quality is poor, it is also possible to feed the meat. Fish feed first use water, then use 0.05% potassium permanganate
Liquid soaking disinfection 5 ~ 10 minutes, then wash it again with water, can be pulverized and fed.
The third, freshwater fish and mild corruption, contaminated meat, need to be fed behind it. The freshwater fish cooked time does not have to be too long, reaching the purpose of
toxic and destroying the amino acid. The sterilization method should try to take the cooking, the vapor is 100 ~ 200 kPa high temperature (1 ~ 2 kg / square
cm pressure), a short time boiling. Death animal bodies, abandoned meat and pox pork and the like to apply high temperature steamed cooking.
Fourth, quality animal dry powder feed (fish powder, meat powder, etc.), after 2 to 3 shots soak for 3 ~ 4 hours, remove excess salt
, ie It can be prepared with other feed mixing modulation.
Naturally bright dried fish generally contains 5% to 30% salt. Before feeding, you must make suprises with water. Soak in winter for 2 ~ 3 days, daily
twice, soaking in summer for 1 day or a little longer, change water 3 to 4 times, you can soak well. No salt dried fish, soak 12Hours
can achieve the purpose of softening. The dried fish after soaking is pulverized, and there is a mixed modulation of other feed.
For silkworm chrysa, it can be mixed with cereals and fed. Dry fish, dried sheep, etc.
High-temperature dried pig liver residue and blood powder, etc. In addition to soaking processing, it is also cooked to achieve sufficient softening purposes, which can improve
Fifth, the surface with a large amount of mucus, stir salt at 2.5%, or dipped with hot water, removes the mucus; the bitter fish, remove
Cooked and fed. This can be improved, and there is a prevention of fur beasts from gastroenteritis.
Sixth, salted fish should be cut into small pieces before use, soak it in seawater for 24 hours, so soaked in fresh water for about 12 hours, change water 3 to 4 times, to be salt
It can be used after leaching. The quality is fresh and feeding, and the quality is poor.
(2) The processing of milk and egg feed should pay attention to the following two points:
First, milk or goat milk, you need to be disinfected before feeding, usually use a pot to 70 ~ 80 degrees for 15 minutes, after cooling, it is ready for use. The milk bucket must be used daily
alkaline water brush clean, acid-defeated milk (heating solidification into a block) cannot be used to feed the fur beast.
fresh milk Press 1: 3 to add water modulation; milk powder Press 1: 7 to add water. The mixed feed is then added to feed even after mixing.
Second, eggs (eggs, duck eggs, eggs, 石 eggs, etc.), which must be fed, in addition to preventing biotin being destroyed, can eliminate
The spread of bacteria.
(3) Processing of plant feed
First, the cereal feed should be pulverized into powder, remove the rough leather shell. It is best to use several grain powder to match (currently using corn noodles,
large bean surface, wheat surface is mixed in the proportion of 2: 1: 1), cooked into the form of a neck or grilled cake, 1 kg gravid Powder can be made from 1.8 to 2 kilograms
.Small fields in the fur beast, can be processed by a method of fur and grain powder; the field of fur beast can be processed with a cooking tank or a copy. Feeding Mao
The professional households of the beast, the individual can use the grain powder to stir cooked in the pot, then the fried noodles will be pushed 1: 1.5 ~ 2 water soaked for 2 hours, add mix
combined feed Hello, you can also make grain powder into porridge to mix into the diet.
Second, vegetables are going to remove the soil, cut the roots and corruption, and wash and stir it. Cherry tomatoes, zucchini and leafy feeding are better. Strict
Soaked a large number of leaf vegetables or long time, otherwise nitrite poisoning occurs. Leaf vegetables are soaked in water for more than 4 hours, wash
Net leaf, do not be placed with hot feed. In winter, quality frozen vegetables, big head dishes, cabbage, cabbage, etc. of the kiln, etc., and the corruption is not allowed
Spring potato buds, contains more dragonfums, need to be fed, otherwise it is easy to cause fur beast poisoning.
(4) Processing of vitamin feed
1 The yeast is commonly used in pharmacelating yeast, feed yeast, bread yeast and beer yeast. Pharmaceutical yeast and feed yeast are high-temperature treatment
Yeast has been killed, and it can be added directly to mix feed. Bread yeast and beer yeast is a live bacteria, and it is necessary to heat the yeast before feeding.
The method is to be allowed to be mixed in cold water and then heated to 70 to 80 degrees for 15 minutes. A small amount of yeast can also use boiling water to kill
. If you do not kill the yeast (or not completely killing), it can cause feed fermentation to make the fur beast in gastrointestinal expansion. Heating
The temperature should not be too high, and the time should not be too long to avoid damaging the vitamins in yeast.
The yeast is physically deteriorated, and cannot be used to feed the fur beast.
2 malt malt is rich in vitamin E. Its method is to soak the wheat for 12 to 15 hours, and then put it in the wood tank. The room temperature is controlled in
15 to 18 degrees, daily uses the water to wash it again, waiting for a white mustal root, The slot will be divided when the buds will be bud, and the thickness is not more than 2 cm, and the daily
sprinkler twoTimes, after 3 to 4 days (low temperature, long time) can grow 1 to 1.5 cm tolerant yellow buds. During the growth of malt,
If the room temperature is too high, it is easy to perform white mold, which can be disinfected with 0.1% potassium permanganate. Indoor should ventilate, protected from light. The rays can make wheat
green, the content of vitamin E is lowered, and the content of vitamin C is increased. Malt need to be strangled with a meat grinder, which should generally be pulverized twice.
3 The vegetable oil plant oil contains a large amount of vitamin E. When saving, it should be placed in a non-metal container, otherwise the preservation time is easily oxidized. Summer
The season is preferably low-temperature, which prevents oxidate. The vegetable oil that has been sour is not used to feed the fur beast. The fur beast breeder is often used
Sub oil supplements the lack of vitamin E in the diet. However, it must be used to use a refined product, which is high in the coarse product, which is harmful to the fur beast, can lead
to chronic poisoning. The iron spoon can be frotted before feeding, and the vitamin E is not damaged under high temperature (170 degrees), while the cottonol is volatilized, and the gas runs away during the heat of
4 mountain, mountain red, red dates, loose leaves, etc. contain a lot of vitamin C. Wash, add water, extrude the juice, add the liquid to
5 vitamin preparation cod liver oil and vitamin E oil, high concentration, can be diluted with soybean oil to add feed, gum pills are used for plant oil.
Grease and dissolved. Add feed. It is generally better to add two days to the feed effect.
Vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C is water soluble, and the three can be dissolved in 40 degrees of warm water, but high temperature or alkaline substances (Su
hit, bone flour, etc. It is easy to destroy its effective ingredients.
fish powder, meat powder, bone powder, silkworm cocoon and cake can destroy vitamin A; acid-lost fat can destroy multiple vitamins.
of the inorganic salt feed
, a salt water can be made according to a certain proportion, generally 1: 5 to 10, directly added to the feed, and the mix is evenly fed. It can also be placed in valley
. The quantity of salt is sureIndeficiency, prevent excessive.
Second, the bone powder and the ashes can be added directly to the feed, and it cannot be mixed with the vitamin B, vitamin C and yeast, no
, the active ingredient will Undermine.
After the above feed is ready, mixed modulation can be made and mixed, and the roughly fur beater is first populated with animal feed, and then plant feed. If
When the fur berry is small, the number of feeds is not large, and various feed can be mixed together, then milk, vitamins, salt water, etc., enter
, the row is stirred. The uniform mixed feed should be rapidly distributed to each group.
In the process of modulation feed, pay attention to the following points.
First, we must strictly implement the variety and quantity specified in the feed, and cannot be changed casually.
Second, it must be modulated on time before feeding, and it cannot be casually advanced.
of nutrient components should be avoided to minimize the mixing of nutrient components.
Third, in order to prevent the deterioration of feed corruption, in the modulation process, the feed of temperature difference is strictly prohibited to mix each other, especially the hot days.
Fourth, during the modulation process, the amount of water is applied properly, and there is excessive addition to the addition of excessive food.
After fifth, feed modulation, machines and utensils should be thoroughly washed, and summer should often disinfection to prevent disease.
32. What are the storage methods commonly used by animal feed?
(1) Low temperature storage method large and medium-sized fur beasts often use motor cold storage. The individual household is less than the amount of feed, and there is a conditionable electricity
refrigerator storage feed, and all kinds of soil bases can be built unconditionally.
1 The frozen sealing soil is low in the winter temperature in my country, and the naturally frozen fish, meat is covered with a small bag, stacked in the avoidance
Feng back, next day Sprinkle, frozen 1 layer of 1 layer, until the ice is about 1 meter. Then, there is a layer of about 1 m thick sawdust or rice husk on the ice, the most
is outside the soil of 1 layer of 30 to 40 cm. When taking the feed, dig open a hole, take a small bag, and block the hole with the grass or old cotton..
This method uses more appropriate to use within 2 to 3 months after jelly in the northern part.
2 The indoor cylinder-style earth killing selects a good warehouse in the room, placing the number of cleaned large tiles in the room, the cylinder spacing is 30 ~ 50 cm, cylinder four
Weekly rice husk Or the saw is filled, then mix the fish, the meat and the ice cubes are poured into the cylinder, and the cylinder port is covered with the old quilts or sacks. The bottom of the cylinder is opened, and the cylinder is opened, and the noodles will be opened.
, with the rubber pipe to outdoor To discharge melted cold water. The second method can be held around 1 week.
(2) High temperature storage method can kill a variety of microorganisms. Newly purchased fresh fish or meat, could be cooked (or steamed) cooked in the pot for a while,
take out the cool place, in the summer use this method to hold for about 1 day, can not place too long.
(3) Dry storage method In the hot dry season, the fresh meat feed is boiled after 20 minutes, cut into pieces, fish feed remove the internal organs (small fish
do not feel The internal organs are dried in the indoor beach, or baked in a dry room, baked in the iron pan to completely dry. Then, the dry animal sex
is placed in the grass bag, stored in a dry, sealed room, the ground is matched on the stone and the dried rice husk to prevent tide. This method can be stored for a long time
(4) Salt clear storage method places fresh feed into the cement pool or in the large cylinder, soaked in high concentration of brine, so extracting the feed, with a stone or
wooden board Compaction. This method can save feed for more than 1 month. However, the longer the saline time, the higher the feed salt content, and the desorgestation must be soaked before use
. At least for 24 hours, the middle should be replaced several times and often agitate, and the salted salt is removed.
33. How to make feed quality identification?
Identifying the quality of the feed is an important task of the fur beast farm. The method of reading the sensory appraisal will now be described below.
(1) Quality identification of meat feeds according to the appearance, elasticity, smell of meat, can be divided into three categories of fresh, not fresh, corrupted.
1 fresh surface has micro dry outer membranes, slightly moist, transparent, not sticky. Sliced surface texture. HaveElasticity, can restore after compression. Gas
Good taste, has a unique odor of various meat. Raw meat is a rose red or a light red, shiny, cooked meat yellow or light yellow.
2 The fresh surface has a wind-dried gray dark outer membrane or humidity, sometimes mold, dark, moist, humis, gray, bungeic. Sliced softness
Soft, small flexibility, and the pressure cannot be restored. The surface is slightly smell, deep in deep. Raw meat is bright, easy to stick; cooked meat soup is slightly chaos
3 The surface of the corrupt surface is very dry or very humid, with light green, sticky mold, cut surface very sticky, very wet. The cut surface is free, and the hand is lightly pressed.
The deep shallow layer can smell the smell of corruption. Raw meat is light green, green, cut dark, sometimes light green; cooked meat soup chaotic, yellow
(2) Fish feed quality identification of various fish freshness, depending on the body surface, eye, sputum, muscle, anal and internal organs, can be divided into new
, Fresh, near corruption, corruption 4.
1 fresh body has a gloss, transparent mucus, fresh smell, complete scales, not easy to fall; the eye is full of highlights, corneal transparency; 红红
or dark red; meat is solid Anal tightening; internal organs are normal.
2 submissions are grateful, the mucus is slightly bad, the scales are complete; the eyeball is dark, flat; the cockroaches are dark, the mucus is odor;
The muscle hardness is slightly weak, but Do not relax; the anus is slightly protruding; the outer shape of the liver has changed.
3 is close to the corruption of the corruption, the mucus chaotic thick, the mild corruption smell, the abdomen is slightly infiltrated; the eyeball is low, the corneal is intact;
gray brown, mucus There is a odor; the muscle soft juice is poorly recovered; the anus is protruding; the liver and intestinal are decomposed phenomenon, the internal organs
are dyed into yellow and green.
4 Corrupt body mucus chaotic, sticky, there is obvious corruption smell, the scales are incomplete, easy to fall off, the abdomen is obviously expanded; the eyeball collapse, the angle
film chaos; gray green, mucus Corrupt scent; meat is soft and relaxation, the dent of the referral pressure can not be recovered, the meat and bone attachment are not prison, the ribs are retired
Out; anal outer flakes; internal organs, decomposition, gastrointestinal and other gray porridges.
(3) Quality identification of milk feed should be identified according to color, state, odor and taste.
1 Normal milk is milky white and slightly yellowed yellow. Uniform, no precipitation, no impurities, no clot. It has a special fragrance, delicious.
2 abnormal milk is light blue, light red or pink. Packed, flocculatory or have a plurality of condensate. With green green, bitter, sour,
metal flavors and other external smells. Abnormal milk often has bacteria, breast inflammation, feed, container or improper storage.
(4) Quality of Egg Feeds identified a layer of powdery (ie gum film) on the egg shell of fresh eggs, egg shell cleaning, color bright
Open egg yolk Start with toughness, protein clarification and transparency, and thin. Available in the tide egg, the egg shell is marble-shaped in the lake. Hatching
, the surface is smooth and reflected. Variable eggs, eggshells, with oil, often smelling corruption.
(5) Quality identification of dry animal feed and dry distribution feed identified dry animal feed and dry-fit feed, attention should be paid attention to color, taste,
odor and dry and humidity. Anyone who has lost inherent colors, powder grains, a green or yellow mold, a pungent odor,
(ie, fat roture), indicating that it has deteriorated, cannot be used.
(6) The quality of grain feed is identified that cereal feed is in case of improper storage, and it is easy to cause heat and deterioration.
Identified cereal feed, mainly based on whether the color is normal, whether the particles are neat, there is no mildew and odor. All appearance checking
Mold, hematics is a mustache, sour taste, taste it is enough, touching a humidity or forming a group, can not be utilized.
(7) Quality and vegetable feed quality identification of fresh fruit and vegetable feed has intrinsic color and odor, and the surface is not sticky. Fresh or deteriorated fruits and vegetables
The color is dark and yellow and has a odor, and the surface is viscous, sometimes fever.
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