The main causes of measures and preventive measures of mineral stones – Beige Forum – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website

The main pathogenic factors and preventive measures of pecrotic stones
Seeing many netizens posted: “Now many people reacting into the sheep strikes, and is more taste.” “This problem is a big problem encountered during the process of feeding.” “What is the treatment or prevention of ammonium chloride in sheep?” Titted the relevant information in his hands and only for netizens.
Urine Stone refers to a salt crystalline that produces or stored with calcium carbonate and phosphate, and has caused inflammation in urinary uterus caused by calcium carbonate and phosphate. The disease is more common with urethra, and the renal stones, the blades are rare. The ram and sheep and sheep are easy to occur, and the ewe will occur less.
There are three types of urinary stones: phosphate stones, calcium stones, silicate stones. It is different.
The main pathogenic factors of uric art
1, feed, feeding factors:
Calcium and phosphorus disorders in diets. In general, the ratio of calcium and phosphorus should maintain 2: 1, at least not less than 1: 1. What happens if our diet belongs to a septic day grain? We know that cereals contain abnormal calcium, phosphorus, which is 1: 4 to 1: 6, so that the ratio of day grain grain can cause a large number of phosphorus into urine. This is first because too much phosphorus enters the sheep body. More importantly, the saliva of ruminants is rich in phosphorus. When we feeding the partial precipitated diet, since the material cannot promote a lot of secretion of saliva (the crude feed can promote a large amount of saliva, the phosphorus in the body will enter the digestive tract with saliva into the digestive tract.) More than the phosphorus that cannot be secreted with differentials can only be discharged from the urine, resulting in the production of phosphate stones of urine.
The sheep grazing in the grass-leaf grass of Fengmao can easily appear calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate, because this pasture contains high calcium, but the phosphorus content is low, and the oxalate content is high. The combination of oxalic acid and calcium generates less absorbed calcium and makes diapers are alkaline, resulting in evolution of calcium stones. In North America, the goat that mainly eats purple flowers, also has urine stones. A large amount of vegetable sugar will also form calcium oxalate stones.
The mucin is a parent (precursor) forming a stones. Estikin substance or growth promoter (hexeee or beans containing estrogen ingredients)Chemicals) will increase the mucin concentration of urine to generate stones. Excessive proteins that exceed maintenance and growth need to form stones in stones. Granular feed also increases the concentration of mucin in the urine.
The spun polysaccharide is related to the rapid growth of the body, and is usually related to the formation of stones. When feeding certain feeds, such as cottonseed cakes, West African beams can cause increased polysaccharides.
Vitamin A lacking causes the bladder epithelial cell to fall off, thereby acting as a parent (or precursor) of the stones, and finally forms stones.
2, drinking water:
When the water is insufficient, the concentration of urine is increased, and the minerals of urine are super-saturation (dehydration is a key factor in various stones development), which is a risk factor in urine stones.
3, castration:
Due to the length and diameter of the urethum, the urine toroid is more in the ram. Early castration leads to lack of relevant sex hormones, affecting the development of penis and urethra. The early castrated sheep, because the diaper diameter is small, and it is easy to block the stones.
4, limiting feeding:
If it is not used to feed the feeding method, it will be fed 1-2 daily, which will cause the release of anti-continentine after feeding, so that urine is temporarily Decrease, thereby increasing the concentration of urine, there is a risk of forming stones.
5, hereditary:
Hered may also have an impact on the occurrence of stones. Some sheep varieties (TXELE) are biased to increase the discharge of phosphorus in urine. Urinary stones may also occur in patients with sickness.
Precautions for murine stones:
1, calcium, phosphorus ratio to reach 2: 1, magnesium content less than 0.2%, which can reduce the absorption of phosphorus and magnesium in the intestine, so more phosphorus The magnesium is excreted with the manure, not the body excrete. Cereals are high-phosphorus low calcium feeds. If you want to feed, you should add calcium. In order to prevent the production of calcium stones, the ram should be mainly feeding to the grass. The ram can also feed a large number of cereals because it results in the production of phosphate stones. In short, it is important to make calcium and phosphorus balance. Long stem forage will increase the secretion of saliva, so that more phosphorus is exported to the body.
2, increase the amount of drinking water. The most important means for preventing the rock stones in the goose is to increase its drinking water. Fresh, clean water will increase the water of the sheep, thereby reducing the supersaturated state of minerals in urine (dehydration is various knots)Key factors for stone development). Summer cold water and warm water in winter can increase drinking water. It can also increase drinking water in more than a drinking water spot and often replacement of drinking water. Increase salts can promote the increase in drinking water, thereby achieving the effect of diluting urine. This can also prevent the bonding of phosphorus and mucoprotein, thereby preventing bird feces (a water-containing phosphate mineral). It is recommended that the amount of salt is used as 3-5% or 4% of the diet of the dry food. It is the most effective method for mixing salts into the feed. However, the salt should not be added to the water, because the lamb may think that the taste is not good, resulting in less water.
3, adjust the pH of the urine. The urine of herbivore is high. The acidic urine contributes to dissolution of phosphate, carbonate and silicate. The solubility of bird manure, calcium phosphate and calcium calcium carbonate in acidic urine is much higher than the solubility of the alkaline urine (the dissolution of calcium oxalate is not affected by the urine pH), and thus the use of urine acidulants is beneficial. . The action of ammonium chloride is to reduce the pH of the urine, so that the urine is more biased to acidity, thereby achieving the purpose of dissolving urinary stones. Add a ammonium chloride additive is most useful for the dissolution of the bird manurestone. Ammonium chloride is also useful for dissolution of calcium carbonate and silicate stones. It is added to a 1% or total duel of the dry matter. It is also possible to use a weight of 40 mg per kilogram. For 30 kilograms of lambs, 7-10 grams can be given per day. It cannot be used as a method that promotes more waters for goats or as a method of masking ammonium chloride, because it contains a lot of potassium, which will reduce the effect of ammonium chloride. But adding sugar is ok. The adverse consequences of long-term feeding to ammonium chloride can result in a decrease in mineral content of the ewec skeletal.
4. Early castration is a risk factor in urethral stones. If possible, avoid castration in March.
5, freely feeding is the preferred feeding method. Because 1-2 times a day will cause the release of anti-contrast hormones after feeding, the discharge of urine is temporarily reduced, thereby increasing the concentration of urine.
6, replenishing vitamin A: It can reduce the falling off of bladder epithelial cells, and epithelial cells are forming a parent (or called precursor) of urinary stones.

Appendix “Lee Yong, Wang Mingcheng, Li Yinyan, etc.) About the urinary stones content:
Urinary stones (stone 淋) refers to the formation of renal pelvis, ureteral, urethra or The salt crystallization of calcium carbonate and phosphate is stored.It is difficult to make the sheep urine, and inflammatory disease in the urinary uterus from the stone bows. The disease is more common with urethra, and the renal stones, the blades are rare. Play ram. Clinical disorders, renal district pain.
Cause:
According to the analysis of clinical cases, the disease is found to be related to the following factors: one is to dissolve oxalate, carbonate, uric acid, phosphate, etc. in urine, in condensation Surrounded by surrounding stones in size, the core of the stones may discover organic matter such as epithelial cells, coagulation blocks, pus. Second, urinary retention or diaper caused by urinary tract inflammation can promote stones. Third, calcium-containing and magnesium salt in feed and drinking water, feeding a large amount of beets roots and slag, and the bran proportion of bran in feed is high, and it can often cause the disease. The fourth is a raw ram with nephritis, soot inflammation and urethritis, the formation of urine stones cannot be ignored.
Clinical symptoms:
The urinary tone is different from occurring due to the occurrence of occurrence.
Urethum stones often have been discovered by people when they completely or incompletely block urinary tracts, causing uterine, urinary tract, and frequent urination. Winning sheep, urination, painful, blood mixed in urine. Urethral stones can be ruined.
The bladder stones did not affect the urination, and there was no clinical symptoms, and often found a large amount of stones at the renal.
Small stones in the pyelone, can enter the ureteral, expand, so that the sheep occurs in the symptoms of pain. Microscope examines urine, visible, concentrated cells, pelvis epithelials, sand or blood. Uremia can often occur when diater is closed.
For the urine, there is less urine, and there is a history of nephritis, bladia, urethritis, should not exclude the possibility of urinary stones.
Diagnosis:
According to clinical symptoms, pathological changes can be preliminary diagnosis, and the diagnosis must be taken for examination.
Prevention:
Pay attention to the treatment of urethra, blades, kidney inflammation. Control the amount of feeding of cereals, bran, beets roots, drinking water to clean.
Drug treatment is generally no effect. For a ram, urethra cutting can be applied, and the stones are taken out. Due to the pelvic and blades of small tabs, the urethra is blocked with the urethra, and the prognosis is cautious when the kidney and blades is abbreviated. Score

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