Why do you want to runome with cows? – Dairy Forum – China Animal Husbandry Website – A useful animal husbandry website
Why do you want to rustify the cows, it is necessary to talk about what is ruminant. CHú) We are commonly known as swearing, and some animals eat semi-digestive food after a period of time, then returning from the stomach, then chewing and pulverizing, and then sends the food into the stomach to continue digestion. Ranking is mainly physiological characteristics of some herbal foods like cows, sheep, deer. These animals are collectively referred to as ruminants. Ruminants are generally in a hurry. When I bite, I will swallow it. When I wait until I take a break, I can’t get enough, but I can’t digest, so I will chew the food to pick up the mouth, mix into the saliva and then swallow it. We call this behavior as ruminant behavior. So why do cows need to row? Because the kind of food that the cows eat is more abundant than other kinds of animals, the food composition is more complicated, and more importantly, the crude fiber content in forage is highly difficult to digest in the stomach, and must be carried out secondary Chewing helps digest, nutrients can be absorbed by the body. Dairy rution is mainly because of its very special physiological characteristics, that is, cows have four stomachs, namely: rumen, net stomach, flap and wrinkle.
Rumen is the “dark room” of the first contact between the food into the nautical gastrointestinal tract, which is also the “main battlefield” of food digestion. It is a closed living fermentor, inhabiting many kinds of microorganisms in a jar, mainly including the three categories of protoscience, bacteria and fungi. Typically, there is a total of 160-40 billion bacteria, 200,000 coda and a large number of fungi. It can take these microorganisms that can be seen, which can be a specific executor of the rumen to digest physiological functions. However, due to the food, the food is not fully chewed during the feeding, the dummy food particles are large, and there is no more surface area with the microorganisms, so the cows will make the food that swallowed again in the mouth.
When the food reaches the rumen, a large number of microbial horses close to the surface of the food, while secreting cellulase, hemicellulase, and β-glycosidase, such as cellulose, half fibers in food. Polysaccharide and other polysaccharides such as pectin are quickly “cut” into single sugar, and “transform” is volatile fatty acids and CO2, etc., the former can provide 60-70% energy source for cows. These polysaccharide plant nutrients, cows themselves cannot be digestive, must be with the strong “troops” of microbes, because the rumen size is large, but its mucosa does not have a digestive gland, norCan secrete digestion liquid. After sufficiently digestion of the microorganism in the nucleation gastrointestinal, about 50% of crude fibers can be digeulated in the tumen. Foods that have been treated in the stomach will enter the net stomach, and the net stomach is a gastric chamber close to the rumen, and its mucosa is like a honeycomb, like a fishnet, called metric. In fact, the stomach and rumen are not completely separated in the spatial structure, and the food particles can freely shuttle from the two gastrointestinal intercom. So, what physiological function is there? In fact, the cow is swallowing after the feeding, so the food may contain some foreign matter. At this time, the nabas is like a sieve, and the foreign matter is stored in it. It does not only have the effect of filtration, and prevent it The foreign matter is hurt to other intestinal surfaces. In addition, the sensor on the mestrous mucosa accepts mechanical stimulating signals from grass or hay, and shrinks in the gastrointestinal wall of the gastrointestinal wall to activate the ruminant behavior. Then the food will enter the flap, the flap is in front of the stomach, and then the stomach, after the mucosa is depressed in the inner depression of many small and small flaps, it is also known as heavy flashes. In fact, this is the louver that we are familiar with. This gastric digestion is more like a “renewal” of rumen and digestion. It is like a water pump, and the rough portion from the osmes from the rumen is concentrated here, and after removing moisture and electrolyte are further grinding, while Dizziness is pushed into the stomach. In the flap, 20% of the cellulose can be digested. Through the flap, the food is sent to the stomach. The stomach is the stomach chamber of the latte, and the only stomach with secretion function, has a true digestive function, and therefore also known as the true stomach. The stomach can secrete a large amount of gastric juice, including hydrochloric acid, gastric protease and latin, and a large amount of mucin. These secretions are primarily chemically digestive for primary metabolites of the top three stomach digestion. After digestion in the stomach, the gastrointestinal entry into the first part of the small intestine in the pylorus. These digests were mixed with the digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas and the bile secreted by the liver into the duodenus, which was digested into enzyme digestion, also known as chemical digestion. From the stomach, the digestion of the ruminant is basically the same as the stomach animals. The strong acid environment in the stomach is completely stopped all bacterial activity. The stomacosacry wall secretes hydrochloric acid, protease and latinase. Only when the pH of the frost is low (pH = 2), the Hall will open, let the digestive flow into the duodenity (the first part of the small intestine). Promine with pancreas, liver and small intestine gland and digestibles discharged into duodenumHybrid. These secretions contain a variety of digestive enzymes such as proteases, amylases, and lipases, these enzymes can hydrolyze proteins, starch and fat. The protein is decomposed into polypeptides and amino acids. Unlike the fermentation of rye, the amino acid in the small intestine will not be degraded into ammonia. Starch and other non-fibrous carbohydrates are hydrolyzed into single sugar such as glucose, fructose, and the like. Fat is hydrolyzed into glycerin and three long chain fatty acids. Among them, the digestion of fat relies on the catalytic participation of pancreatic lipase and bile, bile acid is the main active ingredient of bile, the most important function is to digest the fat and lipid substance in food. During the digestion of food, bile acid not only serves as an auxiliary lipase, but also enhances the activity of lipase. The fat in the food is emulsified by the effect of bile acid and digested by fat digestive enzyme. The digestive product contained in the fine particles of bile acid and was absorbed by the pile film in the small intestine. In addition to the digestive effect of microorganisms and digestive enzymes, cows digestion to food depends on muscle contraction movement of four stomach stomach, net stomach, flap, and wrinkle. Imagine, if the food can’t flow in the stomach room, the four stomach of the milk is not going to be over? Their rhythmic shrinkage forms a directional pressure gradient, thereby causing flow and emptying of each gastric room. The muscle movement of the stomach wall mainly plays three aspects: storage food function, mix the food and gastric fluid to form semi-current food dumping function and emptying food.
Rock, bile acid, pancreatic lipase
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